Document
Table of Contents

 
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
 
 
 
 
FORM 10-K
 
 
 
x  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018
or
¨  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
 
For the transition period from_______ to_______
 
 
 
Commission file number 001-36801
http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12267909&doc=15
Qorvo, Inc. 
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Delaware
 
46-5288992
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
 
7628 Thorndike Road, Greensboro, North Carolina 27409-9421
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
 
(336) 664-1233
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
 
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
(Nasdaq Global Select Market)
 
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None



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Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No ¨

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes ¨ No x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes x No ¨

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S‑K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10‑K or any amendment to this Form 10‑K. x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer x
Accelerated filer ¨
 
 
Non-accelerated filer ¨   (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company ¨
 
 
 
Emerging growth company ¨
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ¨ No x

The aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $8,954,525,040 as of September 30, 2017. For purposes of such calculation, shares of common stock held by persons who held more than 10% of the outstanding shares of common stock and shares held by directors and officers of the registrant and their immediate family members have been excluded because such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination is not necessarily conclusive.

There were 126,490,563 shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding as of May 11, 2018.
 
 
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The registrant has incorporated by reference into Part III of this report certain portions of its proxy statement for its 2018 annual meeting of stockholders, which is expected to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year ended March 31, 2018.
 
 



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QORVO, INC.
FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED MARCH 31, 2018
INDEX
 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 

 
 
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
Item 16.
Form 10-K Summary.
 
 
 
 
 

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Forward-Looking Information

This report includes "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including but not limited to certain disclosures contained in Item 7, "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about our plans, objectives, representations and contentions, and are not historical facts and typically are identified by the use of terms such as "may," "will," "should," "could," "expect," "plan," "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "forecast," "predict," "potential," "continue" and similar words, although some forward-looking statements are expressed differently. You should be aware that the forward-looking statements included herein represent management's current judgment and expectations, but our actual results, events and performance could differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements. We do not intend to update any of these forward-looking statements or publicly announce the results of any revisions to these forward-looking statements, other than as is required under the federal securities laws.
 
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements included in this report, including the notes thereto.

PART I

We use a 52- or 53-week fiscal year ending on the Saturday closest to March 31 of each year. Fiscal years 2018 and 2017 were 52-week years, and fiscal year 2016 was a 53-week year. Our other fiscal quarters end on the Saturday closest to June 30, September 30 and December 31 of each year.

On February 22, 2014, RF Micro Devices, Inc. (“RFMD”) and TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc. ("TriQuint") entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization as subsequently amended on July 15, 2014 (the "Merger Agreement"), providing for the combination of RFMD and TriQuint in a merger of equals (the "Business Combination") under a new holding company named Qorvo, Inc. (the “Company” or “Qorvo”). The transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement were consummated on January 1, 2015.

For more information concerning the Business Combination, see Note 6 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report.

ITEM 1. BUSINESS.

Company Overview

Qorvo® is a product and technology leader at the forefront of the growing global demand for always-on broadband connectivity. We combine a broad portfolio of radio frequency ("RF") solutions, highly differentiated semiconductor technologies, deep systems-level expertise and scale manufacturing to supply a diverse group of customers in expanding markets, including smartphones and other mobile devices, defense and aerospace, Wi-Fi customer premises equipment ("CPE"), cellular base stations, optical networks, automotive connectivity and smart home applications. Within these markets, our products enable a broad range of leading-edge applications – from very-high-power wired and wireless infrastructure solutions to ultra-low-power smart home solutions. Our products and technologies help transform how people around the world access their data, transact commerce and interact with their communities.

Qorvo employs more than 8,300 people. We have world-class manufacturing facilities, and our fabrication facility in Richardson, Texas, is a United States Department of Defense ("DoD")-accredited ‘Trusted Source’ (Category 1A) for gallium arsenide ("GaAs"), gallium nitride ("GaN") and bulk acoustic wave ("BAW") technologies. Our design and manufacturing expertise covers many semiconductor process technologies, which we source both internally and through external suppliers. Our primary wafer fabrication facilities are in Florida, North Carolina, Oregon and Texas, and our primary assembly and test facilities are in China, Costa Rica, Germany and Texas. We also operate design, sales and other manufacturing facilities throughout Asia, Europe and North America.
Qorvo was incorporated in Delaware in 2013. Our principal executive office is located at 7628 Thorndike Road, Greensboro, North Carolina 27409 and our telephone number is (336) 664-1233.

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Operating Segments

We design, develop, manufacture and market our products to leading U.S. and international original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs") and original design manufacturers ("ODMs") in the following operating segments:

Mobile Products (MP) - MP is a leading global supplier of cellular RF and Wi-Fi solutions into a variety of mobile devices, including smartphones, notebook computers, wearables, tablets, and cellular-based applications for the Internet of Things ("IoT"). Mobile device manufacturers and mobile network operators are adopting new technologies to address the growing demand for data-intensive, increasingly cloud-based distributed applications and for mobile devices with smaller form factors, improved signal quality, less heat and longer talk and standby times. New wireless communications standards are being deployed to utilize available spectrum more efficiently. Carrier aggregation ("CA") is being implemented to support wider bandwidths, increase data rates and improve network performance. These trends increase the complexity of smartphones, require more RF content and place a premium on performance, integration, systems-level expertise, and product and technology portfolio breadth, all of which are MP strengths. MP offers a comprehensive product portfolio of BAW and surface acoustic wave ("SAW") filters, power amplifiers ("PAs"), low noise amplifiers ("LNAs"), switches, multimode multi-band PAs and transmit modules, RF power management integrated circuits ("ICs"), diversity receive modules, antenna switch modules, antenna tuning and control solutions, modules incorporating PAs and duplexers ("PADs") and modules incorporating switches, PAs and duplexers ("S-PADs").

Infrastructure and Defense Products (IDP) - IDP is a leading global supplier of RF solutions with a diverse portfolio of solutions that "connect and protect," spanning communications and defense applications. These applications include high performance defense systems such as radar, electronic warfare and communication systems, Wi-Fi CPE for home and work, high speed connectivity in Long-Term Evolution ("LTE") and 5G base stations, cloud connectivity via data center communications and telecom transport, automotive connectivity and other IoT, including smart home solutions. IDP products include GaAs and GaN PAs, LNAs, switches, complementary metal oxide semiconductor ("CMOS") system-on-a-chip ("SoC") solutions, premium BAW and SAW filter solutions and various multi-chip and hybrid assemblies.  

For financial information about the results of our operating segments for each of the last three fiscal years, see Note 16 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report.

Market Overview

Our business is diversified primarily across seven strategic end markets: mobile devices, defense and aerospace, CPE Wi-Fi, cellular base stations, optical, automotive connectivity and smart home. These markets compose the primary building blocks of the IoT.

Mobile Devices
In our largest market, mobile devices, the most significant trend today is the increasing demand for ubiquitous broadband mobile data. This is driven primarily by video, with data traffic for video exceeding data traffic for web browsing and voice. Compounding this, consumers want higher resolution screens and access to streaming media, real-time traffic/navigation, GPS, Bluetooth® connectivity and Wi-Fi. In response, leading smartphone providers are adding 4G LTE and 5G bands of coverage to their flagship devices to reduce development costs and enable larger, more concentrated marketing budgets in support of fewer models. They are also adding CA technology to enable simultaneous communication over multiple frequency bands. This helps network operators optimize spectral efficiency and provides an enhanced user experience for consumers. Both trends expand RF content and drive higher levels of integration, which can increase performance requirements for RF components and narrow the competitive field. We see these trends continuing, as consumers increasingly expect always-on, ultra-low latency, broadband connectivity and as smartphone manufacturers and network operators seek to enhance performance and the user experience generation-over-generation.


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Defense and Aerospace
The global defense and aerospace industries are sharply focused on balancing cost, RF performance and power consumption. The trends toward phased arrays and higher frequencies of operation are expanding the market opportunities for monolithic microwave integrated circuits ("MMICs") and discrete PAs, LNAs, passive devices, die level solutions and multichip modules leveraging multiple semiconductor technologies and advanced packaging techniques. Additionally, as with all RF communications systems, spectrum is becoming increasingly crowded and requires interference-free connections which are addressed by premium filtering solutions. These factors continue to drive demand for increased reliability and performance to address current and next generation communications for defense and national security capabilities, both domestic and with international partners.

CPE Wi-Fi
In Wi-Fi markets, consumer and enterprise demand for faster data rates, the growth in connected users and the higher performance requirements of 802.11ac and 802.11ax mandate best-in-class RF solutions. Wi-Fi is continuing to proliferate within CPE, including routers, access points, set-top boxes and smart televisions, as well as in automobiles. As spectrum becomes more crowded, the demand for interference-free transmission and reception is expected to drive the demand for high performance filters in RF solutions for Wi-Fi equipment.

Cellular Base Stations
The widespread use of data-intensive applications has driven cellular operators to require more power-efficient designs and solutions that enable increased capacity from cellular networks.  To meet network demand, network equipment manufacturers are using techniques such as CA, moving to new RF frequency bands that have wider channel bandwidths and incorporating cloud radio access networks, which use a virtual radio access technology and remote radio heads.  As demand for data-intensive applications continues to grow, the next generation network, called 5G, is forecasted to begin commercial rollout in 2020.  5G networks will continue the progression of operating at much higher frequencies, likely at 28GHz and 39GHz.  In the meantime, operators will continue to evolve the performance of their LTE networks and run field trials to prove out 5G technologies and solutions.  The future trends in the base station market include implementation of Multiple Input Multiple Output ("MIMO") and small cells.

Optical
The optical market is comprised of traditional long haul, telecom network applications and hyperscale data center applications. Telecom applications typically involve high-speed networks of fiber optic cable to enable voice and data communications in a transcontinental, regional or city-wide area. Data center applications support the processing and routing of massive amounts of internet data traffic to, from and within hyperscale facilities used by Web 2.0 participants like Facebook, Google and Amazon in support of their proprietary, cloud-based applications. High-speed throughput, efficient power consumption and cost efficiency are key attributes of the hyperscale data center market.

Automotive Connectivity
The automobile is becoming a more connected device with the addition of multiple RF based connectivity solutions such as satellite radio, in-car infotainment and LTE connectivity solutions. Looking forward, new standards are expected to be deployed that will connect the car to other vehicles or to highway infrastructure. All of these applications create opportunities that will drive the need for RF solutions that will enhance passenger comfort, convenience and safety. Most of these applications require AEC-Q100 qualified solutions, which is the standard in the automobile industry. Additionally, in this market most of the communications devices will need to share frequency spectrum with either licensed or unlicensed users.

Smart Home
The smart home is characterized as a dwelling that contains devices such as sensors that detect light, motion or temperature, or whether doors are open, closed, locked or unlocked, and actuators to implement a command such as lowering the temperature or opening your garage door. Typically, these devices can be controlled via the internet, by a computer or phone or through a direct peer-to-peer connection such as a television remote control. The solutions often utilize industry open standard technologies like Bluetooth Low Energy ("BLE"), ZigBee, and Thread as well as proprietary solutions to link to a central gateway that connects to the internet.

Other Markets
We also participate in several smaller markets including broadband cable, point-to-point radio, Very Small Aperture Terminal ("VSAT") and cellular machine-to-machine ("M2M") applications.

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Products and Applications

Our semiconductor solutions serve RF, microwave and millimeter-wave applications. We believe our products deliver key advantages, as measured by size, weight, linearity, distortion, output power, power-added efficiency, selectivity, frequency control, and other critical performance metrics.

We utilize specialized substrate materials such as GaAs, gallium nitride on silicon carbide (GaN on SiC), silicon germanium (SiGe) and silicon for power amplifiers.  We use silicon on insulator (SOI) for tuners and switches and silicon for controllers.  Our filters use substrates made of lithium tantalate for SAW filters, lithium niobate for temperature compensated SAW filters (TC-SAW) and silicon for BAW filters. We use heterojunction bipolar transistor ("HBT") and pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors ("pHEMT") technologies for our GaAS and GaN power amplifiers. We use solid mounted resonator ("SMR") technology to manufacture our BAW filters.

Mobile Devices
Qorvo’s MP product portfolio includes our RF Fusion™ and RF Flex™ product families. RF Fusion leverages Qorvo’s product and technology leadership, systems-level expertise and advanced integration capabilities to combine all major transmit and receive RF functionality in highly integrated, high-performance, split-band placements. Qorvo’s RF Flex modules leverage our deep systems-level expertise to integrate core cellular transmit and receive functionality in high-performance multiband PA modules and transmit modules. RF Fusion solutions support the industry’s most advanced smartphone architectures, and RF Flex solutions support cost-optimized performance-tier smartphone architectures.

Qorvo is a pioneer in envelope tracking ("ET") technology, which we incorporate into power management components and our most advanced PAs. We also offer ET-capable PAs for third-party power management components. Our ET technology enables us to track the envelope of high-speed modulation signals and adjust the PA in real time to maximize efficiency and maintain the requisite levels of linearity. This is increasingly necessary to maximize data rates and satisfy user expectations for battery life and case temperatures.

Our mobile product portfolio includes filters, duplexers, switches, multimode/multi-band PAs and transmit modules, RF power management ICs, diversity receive modules, antenna switch modules, antenna tuning and control solutions, and modules incorporating PAs, PADs, and S-PADs.

Historically, we have experienced seasonal fluctuations in the sale of mobile products, with revenue strongest in our second and third fiscal quarters and weakest in our fourth fiscal quarter.

Defense and Aerospace
Contractors serving the United States and other governments use our high performance and high reliability products for mission critical solutions across the military and aerospace industry. Our die-level integrated circuits and discrete components, MMICs and multi-chip modules are key components for radar, electronic warfare and communications systems. Program applications include major shipboard, airborne and battlefield radar systems as well as communications and electronic warfare. We supply a wide range of products for large-scale programs with long lead-times. Once a component has been designed into an end-use military application, it is generally used during the entire production life of the end-use system.

Our products for defense radar applications bring new capabilities to detect and neutralize threats against aircrews and shipboard and infantry forces around the globe. Our microwave PAs provide the power at the heart of phased array radar. These radars consist of large element arrays composed of many individual integrated circuits, with the capability to track multiple targets simultaneously. We are strategically teamed with top tier contractors to offer this type of capability to new domestic and multi-national production programs, along with retrofits of other essential tactical military assets with critical enhancements and service life extension capabilities.

In the defense communications field, we supply filters, amplifiers and other components for handheld and satellite communications systems. In addition, we use our packaging and integrated assembly expertise to speed designs, facilitate multi-chip package evolution and deliver cost-effective solutions.

We are the leading supplier of GaN-based products to global defense and aerospace markets and are directly engaged with the United States government, primarily through contracts with the Defense Advanced Research

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Project Agency, the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Office of Naval Research, to develop next generation GaN devices for future high-power phased array radar, electronic warfare and communications systems. The DoD has certified our GaN fabrication and production capabilities at Manufacturing Readiness Level 9, the highest in the industry.

CPE Wi-Fi
We address the high performance requirements demanded in customer premises Wi-Fi equipment through our portfolio of differentiated products, including discrete high power amplifiers, and integrated front-end modules ("iFEMs") for mid and low power, and our discrete and integrated BAW filter capabilities. Our products primarily target high-end Wi-Fi market segments, including retail (routers, extenders and repeaters), distributed mesh solutions, enterprise, service provider and carrier grade Wi-Fi. Our solutions enable better home and business coverage with the faster and more reliable connections required for video streaming, augmented/virtual reality and high density user environments. We use our GaN and GaAs technologies to supply leading Wi-Fi chipset providers with highly integrated, power-efficient solutions and we use our premium filter technologies to provide coexistence and band-edge solutions to address interference issues due to spectrum crowding. This approach aligns with our key customers’ need for more highly integrated, cost-effective solutions to provide a high-quality user experience at affordable prices.

Cellular Base Stations
We offer a broad set of custom RF amplifier solutions, receive module technologies and premium filter solutions to the leading base station OEMs to address the current and future needs of this market. To address the increasing market demands for more power-efficient designs and increased network capacity, we offer transceiver products supporting LTE massive MIMO deployments, primarily in China and Japan. Our integrated solutions for these massive MIMO systems include switch-LNA modules, variable gain amplifiers and integrated PA modules. Our GaAs base station solutions offer differentiated low noise performance, while our GaN amplifiers combine high linearity and efficiency with high output power and low power consumption. We are a strategic supplier of transceiver solutions to base station OEM market leaders, and we expect to continue to grow these relationships with new product categories.
 
We are leveraging our legacy defense product capabilities across low frequencies up through millimeter wave to respond to the product demands of the next generation 5G networks for sub-6GHz and millimeter wave solutions. Our current products are embedded in ongoing 5G field trials, and we have multiple product development engagements with top OEMs to intersect network operators’ timelines for deployment of 5G networks.

Optical
We supply linear and nonlinear driver solutions and trans-impedance amplifiers (“TIAs”) to the optical market and have leveraged this market position by extending our product offerings to include TIAs for long haul telecom, metro and datacenter interconnect applications. These differentiated, value-added products balance performance with the cost per gigabit for our customers. Achieving this balance requires a mix of internal and external semiconductor technologies and innovative packaging. Technologies used for our optical products include GaAs pHEMT, Indium Phosphide ("InP"), SiGe and silicon. In addition, we were the first to offer optical drivers with surface mount packaging and we continue to innovate to create smaller products that consume less power and enhance throughput to address the 40G, 100G, 200G and beyond markets.

Automotive Connectivity
To address the growing demand for connected car solutions, including solutions for cellular LTE, Wi-Fi, and satellite digital audio radio service, we offer a product portfolio that includes differentiated BAW filters, LNAs, switches, PAs and LTE front end solutions, all of which meet or exceed the industry’s automotive level quality and reliability standards. Our BAW and SAW solutions address interference issues due to licensed and unlicensed frequency bands being contiguous or overlapping. We leverage our mobile and CPE Wi-Fi and cellular LTE product portfolios and other technology combinations to address the industry needs. We have products on multiple reference designs with key chipset makers to address future vehicle-to-vehicle communication requirements.


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Smart Home
Our product portfolio for the smart home market consists of silicon CMOS SoC devices and the associated firmware and software to drive the radio functions and enable application software to interface with the SoC. To augment the SoC, we offer various configurations of filtering and amplification utilizing our extensive portfolio of filters, amplifiers and LNAs. Our solutions are vertically focused on applications that perform the functions of remote controls, and we provide support to our customers to enable development of application software to run on our platforms. Our solutions typically support open standard technologies such as BLE, ZigBee, and Thread. Our smart home product development efforts are focused on driving more functionality and system power savings features into our hardware and software architectures to address the needs of battery powered devices, primarily remote controls. We are also engaged with overall ecosystem providers to develop products beyond remote controls to address next generation smart home applications.

Manufacturing

The majority of our products are multi-chip modules utilizing multiple semiconductor and acoustic material processing technologies. These products have varying degrees of complexity and contain semiconductors and other components that are manufactured in-house or outsourced. We are a leading supplier of RF solutions and a leading manufacturer of GaAs HBT, GaAs pHEMT, GaN, SAW, TC-SAW and BAW products.

We operate wafer fabrication facilities for the production of GaAs, GaN, SAW, TC-SAW and BAW wafers in Apopka, Florida; Greensboro, North Carolina; Hillsboro, Oregon; and Richardson, Texas. We also use multiple silicon-based process technologies, including SOI, SiGe and CMOS. We outsource all silicon manufacturing to leading silicon foundries located throughout the world. We have a global supply chain and ship millions of units per day.

We have our own flip chip and wafer-level packaging ("WLP") technologies and we also use external suppliers for these and other packaging technologies. In flip chip packages, the electrical connections are created directly on the surface of the die, which eliminates wirebonds so the die may be attached directly to a substrate or leadframe. This type of technology provides a higher density interconnection than wirebonded die and enables smaller form factors with improved thermal and electrical performance. We use WLP technologies for our SAW, TC-SAW and BAW filter products.

Once semiconductor wafers are manufactured, they are singulated, or separated, into individual units called die. Prior to singulation of wafers into die, we regularly conduct wafer level tests which could include electrical validation, RF testing through the designed frequency bands, as well as visual inspection. For module products, the next step is assembly. During assembly, the die and other components are placed on high-density interconnect substrates to provide connectivity between the die and the components. This populated substrate is formed into a microelectronic package. Next, the products are tested for RF performance and prepared for shipment through a tape and reel process. We primarily use internal assembly facilities in China, Costa Rica, Germany, and the U.S., and we also utilize external suppliers. We also manufacture large volumes of WLP die and discrete filters that our customers directly assemble into their products.

Manufacturing yields can vary significantly between products, based on a number of factors, including product complexity and the maturity of our manufacturing processes. To maximize wafer yields and quality, we test products multiple times, maintain continuous reliability monitoring and conduct numerous quality control inspections throughout the production flow.

Our internal manufacturing facilities require a high level of fixed costs, consisting primarily of occupancy costs, maintenance, repair, equipment depreciation, and fixed labor costs related to manufacturing and process engineering.

ICs and filter products are highly complex and sensitive to contaminants, and semiconductor fabrication requires highly controlled, clean environments. Wafers can be rejected or die on a wafer can be found to be nonfunctional as a result of minute impurities, variances in the fabrication process or defects in the masks used to transfer circuits onto the wafers.

Our manufacturing facilities worldwide are certified to the ISO 9001 quality standard, and select locations are certified to additional automotive (IATF 16949), aerospace (AS 9100) and environmental (ISO 14001) standards.

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These stringent standards are audited and certified by third-party auditors in addition to our continuous internal self-audits. The ISO 9001 standard is based on a number of quality management principles including a strong customer focus, the motivation of top management, the process approach and continual improvement. IATF 16949 is the highest international quality standard for the global automotive industry and incorporates specific additional requirements for the automotive industry. AS 9100 is the standardized quality management system for the aerospace industry. ISO 14001 is an internationally agreed upon standard for an environmental management system. We require that all of our key vendors and suppliers be compliant with select standards, as applicable.

Raw Materials

We purchase numerous raw materials, passive components and substrates for our products and manufacturing processes. For our GaAs and GaN manufacturing operations, we use several raw materials, including GaAs wafers and GaN on SiC wafers. For our acoustic filter manufacturing operations, we use several raw materials, including wafer starting materials made from quartz, silicon, lithium niobate or lithium tantalite, as well as ceramic or metal packages. Relatively few companies produce these materials. Our most significant suppliers of ceramic surface mount packages are based in Japan.

For our silicon-based products, we use third-party foundries. High demand for silicon wafers and wafer starting materials has led to supply constraints from time-to-time, and we have attempted to address this by qualifying multiple silicon foundries and by obtaining supply commitments, in some cases in exchange for purchase or capital commitments by us.

Our manufacturing strategy includes a balance of internal and external sites (primarily for assembly and test operations), which helps reduce costs, provides flexibility of supply, and minimizes the risk of supply disruption. We routinely qualify multiple sources of supply and manufacturing sites to reduce the risk of supply interruptions or price increases and closely monitor suppliers’ key performance indicators. Our suppliers' and our manufacturing sites are geographically diversified (with our largest volume sources distributed throughout Southern and Eastern Asia). We believe we have adequate sources for the supply of raw materials, passive components and substrates for our products and manufacturing needs.

Customers

We design, develop, manufacture and market products for leading U.S. and international OEMs and ODMs. We also collaborate with leading baseband reference design partners located primarily in the U.S. and China.

We provided our products to our largest end customer, Apple Inc. ("Apple"), through sales to multiple contract manufacturers, which in the aggregate accounted for 36%, 34%, and 37% of total revenue in fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ("Huawei") accounted for 8%, 11% and 12% of our total revenue in fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. These customers primarily purchase cellular RF and Wi-Fi solutions offered by our MP segment for a variety of mobile devices, including smartphones, notebook computers, wearables, tablets and cellular-based applications for the IoT.

Some of our sales to overseas customers are made under export licenses that must be obtained from the United States Department of Commerce.

Information about revenue (including segment revenue), operating profit or loss and total assets is presented in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this report.

Sales and Marketing

We sell our products worldwide directly to customers as well as through a network of domestic and foreign sales representative firms and distributors. We select our domestic and foreign sales representatives based on technical skills and sales experience, the presence of complementary product lines and the customer base served. We provide ongoing training to our internal and external sales representatives and distributors to keep them educated about our products. We maintain an internal sales and marketing organization that is responsible for key account management, application engineering support for customers, sales and advertising literature, and technical presentations for industry conferences. Our sales and customer support centers are located near our customers throughout the world.


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Our website contains extensive product information, and we publish a comprehensive product selection guide annually. Our global team of application engineers interacts with customers during all stages of design and production, maintains regular contact with customer engineers, provides product application notes and engineering data, and assists in the resolution of technical problems. We maintain close relationships with our customers and platform providers and provide them strong technical support to help anticipate future product needs and enhance their customer experience.

Research and Development

We maintain a high level of investment in research and development ("R&D") to develop the advanced technologies and products necessary to lead in the markets we serve. Our R&D activities focus primarily on large, competitive design win opportunities for major programs at key customers, which typically requires us to improve the year-over-year functional density, performance, size and cost of our products. We also devote significant R&D resources for targeted development of new products for general release to various markets. Our R&D efforts require us to focus on both continuous improvement in our processes for design and manufacture as well as innovation in fundamental areas like materials, software and firmware, semiconductor process technologies, simulation and modeling, systems architecture, circuit design, device packaging, module integration and test.

We have developed several generations of GaAs, GaN, BAW and SAW process technologies that we manufacture internally. We invest in these technologies to improve device performance, reduce die size and reduce manufacturing costs. We also help develop and qualify technologies made by key suppliers, including SOI for switches and RF signal conditioning solutions, SiGe and InP for amplifiers, and CMOS for power management devices and SoC solutions. We combine these external technologies with our proprietary design methods, intellectual property and other expertise to improve performance, increase integration and reduce the size and cost of our products.

We invest in GaN process technologies and continue to develop and release new GaN-based products to exploit GaN’s performance advantages. The inherent wide band gap, high electron mobility, and high breakdown voltage characteristics of GaN semiconductor devices offer significant performance advantages versus competing technologies.

We develop and qualify advanced packaging technologies to allow us to eliminate wire bonds, reduce component size, improve performance and reduce package costs. We are also investing in large scale module assembly and test capabilities to bring these technologies to market in very high volumes.

In fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016, we incurred approximately $445.1 million, $470.8 million and $448.8 million, respectively, in R&D expenses. We expect to continue to spend substantial funds on R&D in support of our growth and product diversification.

Competition

We operate in a competitive industry characterized by rapid advances in technology and new product introductions. Our customers’ product life cycles are often short, and our competitiveness depends on our ability to improve our products and processes faster than our competitors, anticipate changing customer requirements and successfully develop and launch new products while reducing our costs. Our competitiveness is also affected by the quality of our customer service and technical support and our ability to design customized products that address each customer’s particular requirements within their cost limitations. The selection process for our products to be included in our customers’ products is highly competitive, and our customers provide no guarantees that our products will be included in the next generation of products introduced.

We compete primarily with the following companies: Analog Devices, Inc.; Broadcom Limited; M/A-COM Technology Solutions, Inc.; Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.; Northrop Grumman Corporation; Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.; Skyworks Solutions, Inc.; and Sumitomo Electric Device Innovations.

Many of our current and potential competitors have entrenched market positions and customer relationships, established patents and other intellectual property and substantial technological capabilities. In some cases, our competitors are also our customers or suppliers. Additionally, many of our competitors may have significantly

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greater financial, technical, manufacturing and marketing resources than we do, which may allow them to implement new technologies and develop new products more quickly than we can.

Intellectual Property

We believe our intellectual property, including patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, is important to our business, and we actively seek opportunities to leverage our intellectual property portfolio to promote our business interests. We also actively seek to monitor and protect our global intellectual property rights and to deter unauthorized use of our intellectual property and other assets. Such efforts can be difficult because of the absence of consistent international standards and laws. Moreover, we respect the intellectual property rights of others and have implemented policies and procedures to mitigate the risk of infringing or misappropriating third party intellectual property.

Patent applications are filed within the U.S. and in other countries where we have a market presence. On occasion, some applications do not mature into patents for various reasons, including rejections based on prior art. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as U.S. laws. We have approximately 1,300 patents that expire from 2018 to 2038. We also continue to acquire patents through acquisitions or direct prosecution efforts and engage in licensing transactions to secure the right to practice third parties’ patents. In view of our rapid innovation and product development and the comparative pace of governments’ patenting processes, there is no guarantee that our products will not be obsolete before the related patents expire or are granted. However, we believe the duration and scope of our most relevant patents are sufficient to support our business, which as a whole is not significantly dependent on any particular patent or other intellectual property right. As we expand our products and offerings, we also seek to expand our patent prosecution efforts to cover such products.   

We periodically register federal trademarks, service marks and trade names that distinguish our product brand names in the market. We also monitor these marks for their proper and intended use. Additionally, we rely on non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements to protect our interest in confidential and proprietary information that gives us a competitive advantage, including business strategies, unpatented inventions, designs and process technology. Such information is closely monitored and made available only to those employees whose responsibilities require access to the information.

Backlog

Our sales are the result of standard purchase orders or specific agreements with customers. We maintain Qorvo-owned finished goods inventory at certain customers’ "hub" locations and do not recognize revenue until our customers draw down the inventory at these hubs. Our customers’ projections of consumption of hub inventory and quantities on purchase orders, as well as the shipment schedules, are frequently revised within agreed-upon lead times to reflect changes in the customers’ needs. Because industry practice allows customers to cancel orders with limited advance notice prior to shipment, and with little or no penalty, we believe that backlog as of any particular date may not be a reliable indicator of our future revenue levels.

Employees

On March 31, 2018, we had more than 8,300 employees. We believe that our future prospects will depend, in part, on our ability to continue to attract and retain skilled employees. Competition for skilled personnel is intense, and the number of persons with relevant experience, particularly in RF engineering, product design and technical marketing, is limited. None of our U.S. employees are represented by a labor union. A number of our employees in Germany (less than 5% of our global workforce as of March 31, 2018) are represented by internal works councils. We have never experienced any work stoppage, and we believe that our current employee relations are good.


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Geographic Financial Summary

A summary of our operations by geographic area is as follows (in thousands):
 
Fiscal Year
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
United States
$
524,472

 
$
467,031

 
$
306,328

International
2,449,064

 
2,565,543

 
2,304,398

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
March 31, 2018
 
April 1, 2017
 
April 2, 2016
Long-lived tangible assets:
 
 
 
 
 
United States
$
1,089,157

 
$
1,082,754

 
$
816,882

China
217,205

 
244,728

 
183,836

Other countries
67,750

 
64,450

 
46,170


Sales, for geographic disclosure purposes, are based on the “sold to” address of the customer. The "sold to" address is not always an accurate representation of the location of final consumption of our products. Of our total revenue for fiscal 2018, approximately 52% ($1,539.7 million) was attributable to customers in China and 19% ($564.8 million) was attributable to customers in Taiwan. Of our total revenue for fiscal years 2017 and 2016, approximately 62% ($1,866.0 million) and 61% ($1,601.0 million), respectively, was attributable to customers in China and 13% ($398.4 million) and 14% ($365.1 million), respectively, was attributable to customers in Taiwan.

For financial information regarding our operations by geographic area, see Note 16 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report.

For a summary of certain risks associated with our foreign operations, see Item 1A, "Risk Factors."
 
Environmental Matters

By virtue of operating our wafer fabrication facilities, we are subject to a variety of extensive and changing domestic and international federal, state and local governmental laws, regulations and ordinances related to the use, storage, discharge and disposal of toxic, volatile or otherwise hazardous chemicals used in the manufacturing process. We provide our own manufacturing waste water pretreatment and disposal for most of our manufacturing facilities, and we have contracted for the disposal of our hazardous waste. State agencies require us to report storage and emissions of environmentally hazardous materials, and we have retained appropriate personnel to help ensure compliance with all applicable environmental regulations. We believe that costs arising from existing environmental laws will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.

We are an ISO 14001:2015 certified manufacturer with a comprehensive Environmental Management System ("EMS") in place to help ensure control of the environmental aspects of the manufacturing process. Our EMS mandates compliance and establishes appropriate checks and balances to minimize the potential for non-compliance with environmental laws and regulations.

We actively monitor the hazardous materials that are used in the manufacture, assembly and testing of our products, particularly materials that are retained in the final product. We have developed specific restrictions on the content of certain hazardous materials in our products, as well as those of our suppliers and outsourced manufacturers and subcontractors. This helps to ensure that our products are compliant with the requirements of the markets into which the products will be sold and with our customers’ requirements. For example, our products are compliant with the European Union RoHS Directive (2011/65/EU on the Restriction of Use of Hazardous Substances), which prohibits the sale in the European Union market of new electrical and electronic equipment containing certain families of substances above a specified threshold.

We do not currently anticipate any material capital expenditures for environmental control facilities in fiscal 2019.


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Access to Public Information

We make available, free of charge through our website (http://www.qorvo.com), our annual and quarterly reports on Forms 10-K and 10-Q (including related filings in XBRL format) and current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act") as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file these reports with, or furnish them to, the United States Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). The public may also request a copy of our forms filed with the SEC, without charge upon written request, directed to:

Investor Relations Department
Qorvo, Inc., 7628 Thorndike Road Greensboro, NC 27409-9421

The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We have included our website address as a factual reference and do not intend it as an active link to our website.

In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any documents that we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room located at 100 F Street, N.E., Room 1580, Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for information on the operation of the Public Reference Room.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS.

Our operating results fluctuate.

Our revenue, earnings, margins and other operating results have fluctuated significantly in the past and may fluctuate significantly in the future. If demand for our products fluctuates as a result of economic conditions or for other reasons, our revenue and profitability could be impacted. Our future operating results will depend on many factors, including the following:

business, political and macroeconomic changes, including trade disputes and downturns in the semiconductor industry and the overall global economy;

changes in consumer confidence caused by many factors, including changes in interest rates, credit markets, expectations for inflation, unemployment levels, and energy or other commodity prices;

fluctuations in demand for our customers’ products;

our ability to forecast our customers' demand for our products accurately;

the ability of third-party foundries and other third-party suppliers to manufacture, assemble and test our products in a timely and cost-effective manner;

our customers’ and distributors’ ability to manage the inventory that they hold and to forecast accurately their demand for our products;

our ability to achieve cost savings and improve yields and margins on our new and existing products; and

our ability to utilize our capacity efficiently or acquire additional capacity in response to customer demand.

It is likely that our future operating results could be adversely affected by one or more of the factors set forth above or other similar factors. If our future operating results are below the expectations of stock market analysts or our investors, our stock price may decline.


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Our operating results are substantially dependent on development of new products and achieving design wins as our industry’s product life cycles are short and our customers' requirements change rapidly.

Our largest markets are characterized by short product life cycles and the frequent introduction of new products in response to evolving product requirements, driven by end user demand for more functionality, improved performance, lower costs and smaller form factors. Our largest MP customers typically refresh some or all of their product portfolios by releasing new models each year. In some cases, product designs we pursue represent either opportunities to substantially increase our revenue by winning a new design or a risk of a substantial revenue loss by losing an incumbent product in a customer's device.

Our future success is dependent on our ability to develop and introduce new products in a timely and cost-effective manner and secure production orders from our customers. The development of new products is a highly complex process, and we have experienced delays in completing the development and introduction of new products at times in the past. Our successful product development depends on a number of factors, including the following:

our ability to predict market requirements and define and design new products that address those requirements;

our ability to design products that meet our customers’ cost, size and performance requirements;

our ability to introduce new products that are competitive and can be manufactured at lower costs or that command higher prices based on superior performance;

acceptance of our new product designs;

the availability of qualified product design engineers;

our timely completion of product designs and ramp up of new products according to our customers’ needs with acceptable manufacturing yields; and

market acceptance of our customers’ products and the duration of the life cycle of such products.

We may not be able to design and introduce new products in a timely or cost-efficient manner, and our new products may fail to meet market or customer requirements. Most major product design opportunities that we pursue involve multiple competitors, and we could lose a new product design opportunity to a competitor that offers a lower cost or equal or superior performing product. If we are unsuccessful in achieving design wins against our competitors, our revenue and operating results will be adversely affected. Even when a design win is achieved, our success is not assured. Design wins may require significant expenditures by us and typically precede volume revenue by six to nine months or more. Many customers seek a second source for all major components in their devices, which can significantly reduce the revenue obtained from a design win. In many cases, the average selling prices of our products decline over the products’ lives, and we must achieve yield improvements, cost reductions and other productivity enhancements in order to maintain profitability. The actual value of a design win to us will ultimately depend on the commercial success of our customers’ products.

We depend on a few large customers for a substantial portion of our revenue.

A substantial portion of our MP revenue comes from large purchases by a small number of customers. Our future operating results depend on both the success of our largest customers and on our success in diversifying our products and customer base. Collectively, our two largest end customers accounted for an aggregate of approximately 44%, 45% and 49% of our revenue for fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

We typically manufacture custom products on an exclusive basis for individual customers for a negotiated period of time. Increasingly, the top-tier cellular handset OEMs are releasing fewer new phone models on an annual basis, which heightens the importance of achieving design wins for these larger opportunities. While the financial rewards and market affirmation from a design win for these premier customers are greater, competition for these projects is intense. The concentration of our revenue with a relatively small number of customers makes us particularly dependent on factors, both positive and negative, affecting those customers. If demand for their products increases, our results are favorably impacted, while if demand for their products decreases, they may reduce their purchases of,

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or stop purchasing, our products and our operating results would suffer. Even if we achieve a design win, our customers can delay or cancel the release of a new handset for any reason. Most of our customers can cease incorporating our products into their devices with little notice to us and with little or no penalty. The loss of a large customer and failure to add new customers to replace lost revenue would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We face risks of a loss of revenue if contracts with the United States government or defense and aerospace contractors are canceled or delayed or if defense spending is reduced.

We receive a portion of our revenue from the United States government and from prime contractors on United States government-sponsored programs, principally for defense and aerospace applications. These programs are subject to delays or cancellation. Further, spending on defense and aerospace programs can vary significantly depending on funding from the United States government. We believe our government and defense and aerospace business has been negatively affected in the past by external factors such as sequestration and political pressure to reduce federal defense spending. Reductions in defense and aerospace funding or the loss of a significant defense and aerospace program or contract would have a material adverse effect on our operating results.

We depend heavily on third parties.

We purchase numerous component parts, substrates and silicon-based products from external suppliers. We also utilize third-party suppliers for numerous services, including die processing, wafer bumping, test and tape and reel. The use of external suppliers involves a number of risks, including the possibility of material disruptions in the supply of key components and the lack of control over delivery schedules, capacity constraints, manufacturing yields, product quality and fabrication costs.

Although our key suppliers commit to us to be compliant with applicable ISO 9001 and/or TS-16949 quality standards, we have experienced quality and reliability issues in the past with certain suppliers. Quality or reliability issues in our supply chain could negatively affect our products, our reputation and our results of operations.

We face risks related to sales through distributors.

We sell a significant portion of our products through third party distributors. We depend on these distributors to help us create end customer demand, provide technical support and other value-added services to customers, fill customer orders, and stock our products. We may rely on one or more key distributors for a product, and a material change in our relationship with one or more of these distributors or their failure to perform as expected could reduce our revenue. Our ability to add or replace distributors for some of our products may be limited because our end customers may be hesitant to accept the addition or replacement of a distributor due to advantages in the incumbent distributors’ technical support and favorable business terms related to payments, discounts and stocking of acceptable inventory levels.  Using third parties for distribution exposes us to many risks, including competitive pressure, concentration, credit risk, and compliance risks. Other third parties may use one of our distributors to sell products that compete with our products, and we may need to provide financial and other incentives to the distributors to focus them on the sale of our products. Our distributors may face financial difficulties, including bankruptcy, which could harm our collection of accounts receivable and financial results. Violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act or similar laws by our distributors or other third-party intermediaries could have a material impact on our business. Failure to manage risks related to our use of distributors may reduce sales, increase expenses, and weaken our competitive position.

We face risks associated with the operation of our manufacturing facilities.

We operate wafer fabrication facilities in Florida, North Carolina, Oregon and Texas. We currently use several international and domestic assembly suppliers, as well as internal assembly facilities in China, Costa Rica, Germany and the U.S. to assemble and test our products. We currently have our own test and tape and reel facilities located in China, Costa Rica and the U.S., and we also utilize contract suppliers and partners in Asia to test our products.

A number of factors related to our facilities will affect our business and financial results, including the following:

our ability to adjust production capacity in a timely fashion in response to changes in demand for our products;

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the significant fixed costs of operating the facilities;

factory utilization rates;

our ability to qualify our facilities for new products and new technologies in a timely manner;

the availability of raw materials, the impact of the volatility of commodity pricing and tariffs imposed on raw materials, including substrates, gold, platinum and high purity source materials such as gallium, aluminum, arsenic, indium, silicon, phosphorous and palladium;

our manufacturing cycle times;

our manufacturing yields;

the political, regulatory and economic risks associated with our international manufacturing operations;

potential violations by our international employees or third-party agents of international or U.S. laws relevant to foreign operations;

our ability to hire, train and manage qualified production personnel;

our compliance with applicable environmental and other laws and regulations; and

our ability to avoid prolonged periods of down-time in our facilities for any reason.

Business disruptions could harm our business, lead to a decline in revenues and increase our costs.

Our worldwide operations and business could be disrupted by natural disasters, industrial accidents, cybersecurity incidents, telecommunications failures, power or water shortages, extreme weather conditions, public health issues, military actions, acts of terrorism, political or regulatory issues and other man-made disasters or catastrophic events. We carry commercial property damage and business interruption insurance against various risks, with limits we deem adequate for reimbursement for damage to our fixed assets and resulting disruption of our operations. However, the occurrence of any of these business disruptions could harm our business and result in significant losses, a decline in revenue and an increase in our costs and expenses. Any disruptions from these events could require substantial expenditures and recovery time in order to fully resume operations and could also have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial results to the extent that losses are uninsured or exceed insurance recoveries and to the extent that such disruptions adversely impact our relationships with our customers.

If we experience poor manufacturing yields, our operating results may suffer.

Our products have unique designs and are fabricated using multiple semiconductor process technologies that are highly complex. In many cases, our products are assembled in customized packages. Many of our products consist of multiple components in a single module and feature enhanced levels of integration and complexity. Our customers insist that our products be designed to meet their exact specifications for quality, performance and reliability. Our manufacturing yield is a combination of yields across the entire supply chain, including wafer fabrication, assembly and test yields. Defects in a single component in an assembled module product can impact the yield for the entire module, which means the adverse economic impacts of an individual defect can be multiplied many times over if we fail to discover the defect before the module is assembled. Due to the complexity of our products, we periodically experience difficulties in achieving acceptable yields and other quality issues, particularly with respect to new products.

Our customers test our products once they have been assembled into their products. The number of usable products that result from our production process can fluctuate as a result of many factors, including:

design errors;


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defects in photomasks (which are used to print circuits on a wafer);

minute impurities in materials used;

contamination of the manufacturing environment;

equipment failure or variations in the manufacturing processes;

losses from broken wafers or other human error; and

defects in packaging.

We constantly seek to improve our manufacturing yields. Typically, for a given level of sales, when our yields improve, our gross margins improve, and when our yields decrease, our unit costs are higher, our margins are lower, and our operating results are adversely affected.

Costs of product defects and deviations from required specifications could include the following:

writing off the value of inventory;

disposing of products that cannot be fixed;

recalling products that have been shipped;

providing product replacements or modifications;

direct and indirect costs incurred by our customers in recalling their products due to defects in our products; and

defending against litigation.

These costs could be significant and could reduce our gross margins. Our reputation with customers also could be damaged as a result of product defects and quality issues, and product demand could be reduced, which could harm our business and financial results.

We are subject to increased inventory risks and costs because we build our products based on forecasts provided by customers before receiving purchase orders for the products.

In order to ensure availability of our products for some of our largest end customers, we start manufacturing certain products in advance of receiving purchase orders based on forecasts provided by these customers. However, these forecasts do not represent binding purchase commitments and we do not recognize sales for these products until they are shipped to or consumed by the customer. As a result, we incur significant inventory and manufacturing costs in advance of anticipated sales. Because demand for our products may not materialize, or may be lower than expected, manufacturing based on forecasts subjects us to heightened risks of higher inventory carrying costs, increased obsolescence and higher operating costs. These inventory risks are exacerbated when our customers purchase indirectly through contract manufacturers or hold component inventory levels greater than their consumption rate because this reduces our visibility regarding the customers’ accumulated levels of inventory. If product demand decreases or we fail to forecast demand accurately, we could be required to write-off inventory, which would have a negative impact on our gross margin and other operating results.


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We sell certain of our products based on reference designs of platform providers, and our inability to effectively manage or maintain our evolving relationships with these companies may have an adverse effect on our business.

Platform providers are typically large companies that provide system reference designs for OEMs and ODMs that include the platform provider’s baseband and other complementary products. A platform provider may own or control IP that gives it a strong market position for its baseband products for certain air interface standards, which provides it with significant influence and control over sales of RF products for these standards. Platform providers historically looked to us and our competitors to provide RF products to their customers as part of the overall system design, and we competed with other RF companies to have our products included in the platform provider’s system reference design. This market dynamic has evolved in recent years as platform providers have worked to develop more fully integrated solutions that include their own RF technologies and components.

Platform providers may be in a different business from ours or we may be their customer or direct competitor. Accordingly, we must balance our interest in obtaining new business with competitive and other factors. Because platform providers control the overall system reference design, if they offer competitive RF technologies or their own RF solutions as a part of their reference design and exclude our products from the design, we are at a distinct competitive disadvantage with OEMs and ODMs that are seeking a turn-key design solution, even if our products offer superior performance. This requires us to work more closely with OEMs and ODMs to secure the design of our products in their handsets and other devices.

Our relationships with platform providers are complex and evolving, and the inability to effectively manage or maintain these relationships could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to risks from international sales and operations.

We operate globally with sales offices and R&D activities as well as manufacturing, assembly and testing facilities in multiple countries, and some of our business activities may be concentrated in one or more geographic areas. As a result, we are subject to regulatory, geopolitical and other risks associated with doing business outside the U.S., including:

global and local economic and political conditions;

currency controls and fluctuations;

tariff, trade (including import/export regulations) and other related restrictions and regulations;

labor market conditions and workers’ rights affecting our transportation or manufacturing arrangements or those of our customers or suppliers;

disruptions of capital and trading markets;

occurrences of geopolitical crises such as terrorist activity, armed conflict, civil or military unrest or political instability, which may disrupt manufacturing, assembly, logistics, security and communications and result in reduced demand for our products;

compliance with laws and regulations that differ among jurisdictions, including those covering taxes, intellectual property ownership and infringement, imports and exports, anti-corruption and anti-bribery, antitrust and competition, data privacy, and environment, health, and safety; and

pandemics and similar major health concerns, which could adversely affect our business and our customer order patterns.

Sales to customers located outside the U.S. accounted for approximately 82% of our revenue in fiscal 2018, of which approximately 52% and 19% were attributable to sales to customers located in China and Taiwan, respectively. We expect that revenue from international sales to China and other markets will continue to be a significant part of our total revenue. Any weakness in the Chinese economy could result in a decrease in demand for consumer products that contain our products, which could materially and adversely affect our business. The

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imposition by the U.S. of tariffs on goods imported from China and other government actions that restrict our ability to sell our products to Chinese customers, and countermeasures imposed by China in response, could directly or indirectly adversely impact our manufacturing costs and the sales of our products in China and other markets.

As a global company, our results are affected by movements in currency exchange rates. Our exposure may increase or decrease over time as our foreign business levels fluctuate in the countries where we have operations, and these changes could have a material impact on our financial results. The functional currency for most of our international operations is the U.S. dollar. We have foreign operations in Asia, Europe and Costa Rica and Europe, and a substantial portion of our revenue is derived from sales to customers outside the U.S. Our international revenue is primarily denominated in U.S. dollars. Operating expenses and certain working capital items related to our foreign-based operations are, in some instances, denominated in the local foreign currencies and therefore are affected by changes in the U.S. dollar exchange rate in relation to foreign currencies, such as the Costa Rican Colon, Euro, Pound Sterling, Renminbi and Singapore Dollar. If the U.S. dollar weakens compared to these and other currencies, our operating expenses for foreign operations will be higher when remeasured back into U.S. dollars.

Economic regulation in China could adversely impact our business and results of operations.

We have a significant portion of our assembly and testing capacity in China. In recent years, the Chinese economy has experienced periods of rapid expansion and wide fluctuations in the rate of inflation. In response to these factors, the Chinese government has, from time to time, adopted measures to regulate growth and contain inflation, including measures designed to restrict credit or to control prices. Such actions in the future, as well as other changes in Chinese laws and regulations, could increase the cost of doing business in China or decrease the demand for our products in China, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We operate in a very competitive industry and must continue to implement innovative technologies.

We compete with several companies primarily engaged in the business of designing, manufacturing and selling RF solutions, as well as suppliers of discrete integrated circuits and modules. In addition to our direct competitors, some of our largest end customers and leading platform partners also compete with us to some extent by designing and manufacturing their own products. Increased competition from any source could adversely affect our operating results through lower prices for our products, reduced demand for our products, losses of existing design slots with key customers and a corresponding reduction in our ability to recover development, engineering and manufacturing costs.

Many of our existing and potential competitors have entrenched market positions, historical affiliations with OEMs, considerable internal manufacturing capacity, established IP rights and substantial technological capabilities. The semiconductor industry has experienced increased industry consolidation over the last several years, a trend we expect to continue. Many of our existing and potential competitors may have greater financial, technical, manufacturing or marketing resources than we do. We cannot be sure that we will be able to compete successfully with our competitors.


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Industry overcapacity could cause us to underutilize our manufacturing facilities and have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.

It is difficult to predict future demand for our products, which makes it difficult to estimate future requirements for production capacity. Capacity expansion projects have long lead times and require capital commitments based on forecasted product trends and demand well in advance of production orders from customers. In recent years, we have made significant capital investments to expand our BAW, SAW and TC-SAW filter capacity to address forecasted future demand patterns.

In the past, capacity additions by us and our competitors sometimes exceeded demand requirements, leading to overcapacity situations. Fluctuations in the growth rate of industry capacity relative to the growth rate in demand for our products also lead to overcapacity and contribute to cyclicality in the semiconductor market.

As many of our manufacturing costs are fixed, these costs cannot be reduced in proportion to the reduced revenues experienced during periods in which we underutilize our manufacturing facilities as a result of overcapacity. If the demand for our products is not consistent with our expectations, underutilization of our manufacturing facilities may have a material adverse effect on average selling prices, our gross margin and other operating results. If demand for our products experiences a prolonged decrease, we may be required to write down our long-lived assets or shorten the useful lives of underutilized assets and accelerate depreciation, which would increase our expenses.

We may not be able to borrow funds under our credit facility or secure future financing.

On December 5, 2017, we entered into a five-year unsecured senior credit facility pursuant to a credit agreement with Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent, swing line lender and L/C issuer, and a syndicate of lenders (the "Credit Agreement"). The Credit Agreement includes a $300.0 million revolving credit facility which includes a $25.0 million sublimit for the issuance of standby letters of credit and a $10.0 million sublimit for swing line loans. We may request, at any time and from time to time, that the revolving credit facility or the Term Loan (as defined below) be increased by an amount not to exceed $300.0 million. The revolving credit facility is available to finance working capital, capital expenditures and for other corporate purposes. This facility contains various conditions, covenants and representations with which we must be in compliance in order to borrow funds. We cannot assure that we will be in compliance with these conditions, covenants and representations in the future when we may need to borrow funds under this facility.

We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our debt, including our Term Loan and Senior Notes, or to fund capital expenditures and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our debt obligations and financing requirements, which may not be successful or on terms favorable to us.

The Credit Agreement also includes a $400.0 million senior delayed draw term loan (the "Term Loan"), of which $100.0 million was funded at closing and then subsequently repaid during March 2018. At our discretion, we may draw down the remaining balance in up to two advances prior to June 5, 2018.

In November 2015, we issued $450.0 million aggregate principal amount of 6.75% Senior Notes due 2023 (the "2023 Notes") and $550.0 million aggregate principal amount of 7.00% Senior Notes due 2025 (the "2025 Notes" and together with the 2023 Notes, the "Notes"). The Notes were issued pursuant to an indenture dated as of November 19, 2015 (the "Indenture"). In September 2016, we completed an exchange offer, in which all of the 2023 Notes and substantially all of the 2025 Notes were exchanged for new notes that have been registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"). Our ability to make scheduled payments on or to refinance our debt obligations, including the Term Loan and the Notes, and to fund working capital, planned capital expenditures and expansion efforts and any strategic alliances or acquisitions we may make in the future depends on our ability to generate cash in the future and on our financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. We cannot be sure that we will maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our debt, including the Term Loan and the Notes. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may face liquidity issues and be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, or to sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our debt, including the Term Loan and the Notes. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service and other obligations. Additionally, the agreements governing our Credit Agreement and the Indenture governing the Notes limit the use of the proceeds

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from any disposition; as a result, we may not be allowed under these documents to use proceeds from such dispositions to satisfy our debt service obligations. Further, we may need to refinance all or a portion of our debt on or before maturity, and we cannot be sure that we will be able to refinance any of our debt on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

The agreements and instruments governing our debt impose restrictions that may limit our operating and financial flexibility.

The Credit Agreement governing our revolving credit facility and the Term Loan and the Indenture governing the Notes contain a number of significant restrictions and covenants that limit our ability to:

incur additional debt;

pay dividends, make other distributions or repurchase or redeem our capital stock;

prepay, redeem or repurchase certain debt;

make loans and investments;

sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of assets;

incur or permit to exist certain liens;

enter into certain types of transactions with affiliates;

enter into agreements restricting our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends; and

consolidate, amalgamate, merge or sell all or substantially all of our assets.

These covenants could have the effect of limiting our flexibility in planning for or reacting to changes in our business and the markets in which we compete. In addition, the Credit Agreement requires us to comply with certain financial maintenance covenants. Operating results below current levels or other adverse factors, including a significant increase in interest rates, could result in our being unable to comply with the financial covenants contained in our revolving credit facility. If we violate covenants under the Credit Agreement and are unable to obtain a waiver from our lenders, our debt under our revolving credit facility would be in default and could be accelerated by our lenders. Because of cross-default provisions in the agreements and instruments governing our debt, a default under one agreement or instrument could result in a default under, and the acceleration of, our other debt. If our debt is accelerated, we may not be able to repay our debt or borrow sufficient funds to refinance it. Even if we are able to obtain new financing, it may not be on commercially reasonable terms, on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. If our debt is in default for any reason, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, complying with these covenants may also cause us to take actions that are not favorable to holders of the notes and may make it more difficult for us to successfully execute our business strategy and compete against companies that are not subject to such restrictions.

The price of our common stock may be volatile.

The price of our common stock, which is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, has been and may continue to be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations. In addition, the trading volume of our common stock may fluctuate and cause significant price variations to occur. Some of the factors that could cause fluctuations in the stock price or trading volume of our common stock include:

general market and economic and political conditions, including market conditions in the semiconductor industry;

actual or expected variations in quarterly operating results;

differences between actual operating results and those expected by investors and analysts;


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changes in recommendations by securities analysts;

operations and stock performance of competitors and major customers;

accounting charges, including charges relating to the impairment of goodwill and restructuring;

significant acquisitions, strategic alliances, capital commitments, or new products announced by us or by our competitors;

sales of our common stock, including sales by our directors and officers or significant investors;

repurchases of our common stock;

recruitment or departure of key personnel; and

loss of key customers.

We cannot assure you that the price of our common stock will not fluctuate or decline significantly in the future. In addition, the stock market in general can experience considerable price and volume fluctuations that are unrelated to our performance.

Our stock repurchases may fluctuate.

The amount and timing of our stock repurchases may fluctuate based on a number of factors, including our priorities for the use of our cash for other purposes, such as capital spending and acquisitions, restrictions under securities laws and because of changes in our cash flows, tax laws and the market price of our common stock.

We may engage in future acquisitions that dilute our stockholders’ ownership, cause us to incur debt and assume contingent liabilities or adversely affect our results of operations.

As part of our business strategy, we expect to continue to review potential acquisitions and strategic investments that could complement our current product offerings, augment our market coverage or enhance our technical capabilities, or that may otherwise offer growth or margin improvement opportunities. In the event of future acquisitions of businesses, products or technologies, we could issue equity securities that would dilute our current stockholders’ ownership, incur substantial debt or other financial obligations or assume contingent liabilities. Such actions could harm our results of operations or the price of our common stock. Acquisitions and strategic investments also entail numerous other risks that could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition, including:

unanticipated costs, capital expenditures or working capital requirements;

acquisition-related charges and amortization of acquired technology and other intangibles;

the potential loss of key employees from a company we acquire or in which we invest;

diversion of management’s attention from our business;

dissynergies or other harm to existing business relationships with suppliers and customers;

losses or impairment of investments from unsuccessful research and development by companies in which we invest;

failure to successfully integrate acquired businesses, operations, products, technologies and personnel; and

unrealized expected synergies.

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In order to compete, we must attract, retain, and motivate key employees, and our failure to do so could harm our business and our results of operations.

In order to compete effectively, we must:

hire and retain qualified employees;

continue to develop leaders for key business units and functions;

expand our presence in international locations and adapt to cultural norms of foreign locations; and

train and motivate our employee base.

Our future operating results and success depend on keeping key technical personnel and management and expanding our sales and marketing, R&D and administrative support. We do not have employment agreements with the vast majority of our employees. We must also continue to attract qualified personnel. The competition for qualified personnel is intense, and the number of people with experience, particularly in RF engineering, integrated circuit and filter design, and technical marketing and support, is limited. In addition, existing or new immigration laws, policies or regulations in the U.S. may limit the pool of available talent. Travels bans, difficulties obtaining visas and other restrictions on international travel could make it more difficult to effectively manage our international operations, collaborate as a global company or service our international customer base. We cannot be sure that we will be able to attract and retain skilled personnel in the future, which could harm our business and our results of operations.

We rely on our intellectual property portfolio and may not be able to successfully protect against the use of our intellectual property by third parties.

We rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, trade secret laws, confidentiality procedures and licensing arrangements to protect our intellectual property rights. We cannot be certain that patents will be issued from any of our pending applications or that patents will be issued in all countries where our products can be sold. Further, we cannot be certain that any claims allowed from pending applications will be of sufficient scope or strength to provide meaningful protection against our competitors. Our competitors may also be able to design around our patents.

The laws of some countries in which our products are developed, manufactured or sold may not protect our products or intellectual property rights to the same extent as U.S. laws. This increases the possibility of piracy of our technology and products. Although we intend to vigorously defend our intellectual property rights, we may not be able to prevent misappropriation of our technology. Additionally, our competitors may be able to independently develop non-infringing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to ours.

We may need to engage in legal actions to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights. Generally, intellectual property litigation is both expensive and unpredictable. Our involvement in intellectual property litigation could divert the attention of our management and technical personnel and have a material, adverse effect on our business.

We may be subject to claims of infringement of third-party intellectual property rights.

Our operating results may be adversely affected if third parties were to assert claims that our products infringed their patent, copyright or other intellectual property rights. Such assertions could lead to expensive and unpredictable litigation, diverting the attention of management and technical personnel. An unsuccessful result in any such litigation could have adverse effects on our business, which may include injunctions, exclusion orders and royalty payments to third parties. In addition, if one of our customers or another supplier to one of our customers were found to be infringing on third-party intellectual property rights, such finding could adversely affect the demand for our products.

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Security breaches and other disruptions could compromise our proprietary information and expose us to liability, which would cause our business and reputation to suffer.

We rely on trade secrets, technical know-how and other unpatented proprietary information relating to our product development and manufacturing activities to provide us with competitive advantages. We protect this information by entering into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, strategic partners and other third parties. We also design our computer networks and implement various procedures to restrict unauthorized access to our proprietary information.

We face internal and external data security threats. Current, departing or former employees or third parties could attempt to improperly use or access our computer systems and networks to copy, obtain, or misappropriate our proprietary information or otherwise interrupt our business. Like others, we are also subject to significant system or network disruptions from numerous causes, including computer viruses and other cyber-attacks, facility access issues, new system implementations and energy blackouts.

Security breaches, computer malware, phishing, spoofing, and other cyber-attacks have become more prevalent and sophisticated in recent years. While we defend against these threats on a daily basis, we do not believe that such attacks to date have caused us any material damage. Because the techniques used by computer hackers and others to access or sabotage networks constantly evolve and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate, counter or ameliorate all of these techniques. As a result, our and our customers' proprietary information may be misappropriated and the impact of any future incident cannot be predicted. Any loss of such information could harm our competitive position, result in a loss of customer confidence in the adequacy of our threat mitigation and detection processes and procedures, or cause us to incur significant costs to remedy the damages caused by the incident. We routinely implement improvements to our network security safeguards and we are devoting increasing resources to the security of our information technology systems. We cannot, however, assure that such system improvements will be sufficient to prevent or limit the damage from any future cyber-attack or network disruptions.

The costs related to cyber-attacks or other security threats or computer systems disruptions typically would not be fully insured or indemnified by others. Occurrence of any of the events described above could result in loss of competitive advantages derived from our R&D efforts or our IP. Moreover, these events may result in the early obsolescence of our products, product development delays, or diversion of the attention of management and key information technology and other resources, or otherwise adversely affect our internal operations and reputation or degrade our financial results and stock price.

We may be subject to theft, loss, or misuse of personal data by or about our employees, customers or other third parties, which could increase our expenses, damage our reputation, or result in legal or regulatory proceedings.

In the ordinary course of our business, we have access to sensitive, confidential or personal data or information regarding our employees and others that is subject to privacy and security laws and regulations. The theft, loss, or misuse of personal data collected, used, stored, or transferred by us to run our business, or by our third party service providers, including business process software applications providers and other vendors that have access to sensitive data, could result in damage to our reputation, disruption of our business activities, significantly increased business and security costs or costs related to defending legal claims.

Global privacy legislation, enforcement, and policy activity in this area are rapidly expanding and creating a complex regulatory compliance environment. For example, the European Union adopted the General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR"), which requires companies to meet new requirements beginning in May 2018 regarding the handling of personal data, including its use, protection and the ability of persons whose data is stored to correct or delete such data about themselves. Failure to meet GDPR requirements could result in penalties of up to 4% of worldwide revenue. In addition, the interpretation and application of consumer and data protection laws in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere are often uncertain and fluid, and may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our data practices. Complying with these changing laws has caused, and could continue to cause, us to incur substantial costs, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Further, failure to comply with existing or new rules may result in significant penalties or orders to stop the alleged non-compliant activity. Finally, even our inadvertent failure to comply with federal, state, or international privacy-

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related or data protection laws and regulations could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others.

We are subject to warranty claims, product recalls and product liability.

From time to time, we may be subject to warranty or product liability claims that could lead to significant expense. We may also be exposed to such claims as a result of any acquisition we may undertake in the future. Although we maintain reserves for reasonably estimable liabilities and purchase product liability insurance, we may elect to self-insure with respect to certain matters and our reserves may be inadequate to cover the uninsured portion of such claims.

Product liability insurance is subject to significant deductibles and such insurance may be unavailable or inadequate to protect against all claims. If one of our customers recalls a product containing one of our devices, we may incur significant costs and expenses, including replacement costs, direct and indirect product recall-related costs, diversion of technical and other resources and reputational harm. Our customer contracts typically contain warranty and indemnification provisions, and in certain cases may also contain liquidated damages provisions, relating to product quality issues. The potential liabilities associated with such provisions are significant, and in some cases, including in agreements with some of our largest end customers, are potentially unlimited. Any such liabilities may greatly exceed any revenue we receive from sale of the relevant products. Costs, payments or damages incurred or paid by us in connection with warranty and product liability claims and product recalls could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to risks associated with environmental, health and safety regulations and climate change.

We are subject to a broad array of U.S. and foreign environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These laws and regulations include those related to the use, transportation, storage, handling, emission, discharge and recycling or disposal of hazardous materials used in our manufacturing, assembly and testing processes. Our failure to comply with any of these existing or future laws or regulations could result in:

regulatory penalties and fines;

legal liabilities, including financial responsibility for remedial measures if our properties are contaminated;

expenses to secure required permits and governmental approvals;

reputational damage;

suspension or curtailment of our manufacturing, assembly and test processes; and

increased costs to acquire pollution abatement or remediation equipment or to modify our equipment, facilities or manufacturing processes to bring them into compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

Existing and future environmental laws and regulations could also impact our product designs and limit or restrict the materials or components that are included in our products. In addition, many of our largest end customers require us to comply with corporate social responsibility policies, which often include employment, health, safety, environmental and other requirements that exceed applicable legal requirements. Compliance with these policies increases our operating expenses and non-compliance can adversely affect customer relationships and harm our business.

New climate change laws and regulations could require us to change our manufacturing processes or procure substitute raw materials that may cost more or be more difficult to procure. In addition, new restrictions on emissions of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases could result in increased costs for us and our suppliers. Various jurisdictions are developing other climate change-based regulations that also may increase our expenses and adversely affect our operating results. We expect increased worldwide regulatory activity relating to climate change in the future. Future compliance with these laws and regulations may adversely affect our business and results of operations.


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Compliance with regulations regarding the use of “conflict minerals” could limit the supply and increase the cost of certain metals used in manufacturing our products.

Regulations in the U.S. currently require that we determine whether certain materials used in our products, referred to as conflict minerals, originated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo or adjoining countries, or were from recycled or scrap sources. The verification and reporting requirements could affect the sourcing and availability of minerals that are used in the manufacture of our products. We have incurred costs and expect to incur additional costs associated with complying with these requirements. Additionally, we may face reputational challenges with our customers and other stakeholders if we are unable to sufficiently verify the origins of all minerals used in our products through the due diligence procedures that we implement. We may also face challenges with government regulators and our customers and suppliers if we are unable to sufficiently make any required determination that the metals used in our products are conflict free.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware may discourage takeovers and business combinations that our stockholders might consider to be in their best interests.

Certain provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may have the effect of delaying, deterring, preventing or rendering more difficult a change in control of Qorvo that our stockholders might consider to be in their best interests. These provisions include:

granting to the board of directors sole power to set the number of directors and fill any vacancy on the board of directors, whether such vacancy occurs as a result of an increase in the number of directors or otherwise;

the ability of the board of directors to designate and issue one or more series of preferred stock without stockholder approval, the terms of which may be determined at the sole discretion of the board of directors;

the inability of stockholders to call special meetings of stockholders;

establishment of advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and nominations for election to the board of directors at stockholder meetings; and

the inability of stockholders to act by written consent.

In addition, the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware contains provisions that regulate “business combinations” between corporations and interested stockholders who own 15% or more of the corporation’s voting stock, except under certain circumstances. These provisions could also discourage potential acquisition proposals and delay or prevent a change in control.

These provisions may prevent our stockholders from receiving the benefit of any premium to the market price of our common stock offered by a bidder in a takeover context, and may also make it more difficult for a third party to replace directors on our board of directors. Further, the existence of these provisions may adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common stock if they are viewed as discouraging takeover attempts in the future.

Our operating results could vary as a result of the methods, estimates and judgments we use in applying our accounting policies.

The methods, estimates and judgments we use in applying our accounting policies have a significant impact on our results of operations (see "Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates" in Part II, Item 7 of this report). Such methods, estimates and judgments are, by their nature, subject to substantial risks, uncertainties and assumptions, and factors may arise over time that lead us to change our methods, estimates and judgments that could significantly affect our results of operations.

Decisions we make about the scope of our future operations could affect our future financial results.

From time to time, changes in the business environment have led us to change the scope of our operations or business, which has resulted in restructuring and asset impairment charges, and this could occur in the future. The

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amount and timing of such charges can be difficult to predict. Factors that contribute to the amount and timing of such charges include:

the timing and execution of plans and programs that are subject to local labor law requirements, including consultation with appropriate work councils;

changes in assumptions related to severance and post-retirement costs;

the timing of future divestitures and the amount and type of proceeds realized from such divestitures; and

changes in the fair value of certain long-lived assets and goodwill.

Changes in our effective tax rate may impact our results of operations.

We are subject to taxation in China, Germany, Singapore, the U.S. and numerous other foreign taxing jurisdictions. Our effective tax rate is subject to fluctuations as it is impacted by a number of factors, including the following:

changes in our overall profitability and the amount of profit determined to be earned and taxed in jurisdictions with differing statutory tax rates;

the resolution of issues arising from tax audits with various tax authorities, including those described in Note 12 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report;

changes in the valuation of either our gross deferred tax assets or gross deferred tax liabilities;

adjustments to income taxes upon finalization of various tax returns;

changes in expenses not deductible for tax purposes;

changes in available tax credits;

changes in tax laws or the interpretation of such tax laws, and changes in generally accepted accounting principles; and

a future decision to repatriate non-U.S. earnings for which we have not previously provided country withholding taxes incurred upon repatriation.

Any significant increase in our future effective tax rates could reduce net income for future periods.

Changes in the favorable tax status of our subsidiaries in Costa Rica and Singapore would have an adverse impact on our operating results.

Our subsidiaries in Costa Rica and Singapore have been granted tax holidays that effectively minimize our tax expense and that are expected to be effective through March 2024 and December 2021, respectively. In their efforts to deal with budget deficits, governments around the world are focusing on increasing tax revenues through increased audits and, potentially, increased tax rates for corporations. As part of this effort, governments continue to review their policies on granting tax holidays. In February 2017, Singapore enacted legislation that will exclude from our existing Development and Expansion Incentive grant the benefit of the reduced tax rate for Intellectual Property income earned after June 30, 2021. Future changes in the status of either tax holiday could have a negative effect on our net income in future years.

The impact of new U.S. tax legislation is uncertain and could have a material adverse impact on our cash flows and results of operations.

On December 22, 2017, the U.S. enacted comprehensive tax legislation, commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act"), which includes a number of changes to U.S. tax laws that impact us, including a reduction in the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%, a one-time mandatory deemed repatriation tax on earnings of certain foreign subsidiaries that were previously tax deferred, and a new minimum tax on certain foreign earnings.

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Based on our current analysis of the changes enacted by the Tax Act, it will continue to have a significant impact on our results of operations.

The Tax Act requires complex computations to be performed that were not previously required under U.S. tax law, significant judgments to be made in interpretation of the provisions of the Tax Act, significant estimates in calculations, and the preparation and analysis of information not previously relevant or regularly produced. The United States Treasury Department, the Internal Revenue Service, and other standard-setting bodies could interpret or issue guidance on how provisions of the Tax Act will be applied or otherwise administered that is different from our initial interpretation. As we complete our analysis of the Tax Act, review all information, collect and prepare necessary data, and interpret any additional guidance, we may adjust the initial provisional amounts that we have recorded, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Base Erosion and Profit Shifting initiative on tax policy and enacted laws in the countries in which we operate could increase our tax obligations.

Many countries are beginning to implement legislation and other guidance to align their international tax rules with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation’s Base Erosion and Profit Shifting recommendations and action plan, which aim to standardize and modernize global corporate tax policy, including changes to cross-border tax, transfer pricing documentation rules, and nexus-based tax incentive practices. If these changes are adopted by countries in which we do business, our tax obligations in these countries could increase. Furthermore, as a result of the heightened scrutiny of corporate taxation policies, prior decisions by tax authorities regarding treatments and positions of corporate income taxes could be subject to enforcement activities, and legislative investigation and inquiry, which could also result in changes in tax policies or prior tax rulings. Any such changes in policies or rulings may also increase our effective tax rate or result in the taxes we previously paid being subject to change, which may harm our financial position and results of operations.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.

None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.

Our corporate headquarters (leased) and our MP headquarters (owned) are in Greensboro, North Carolina, where we also have a six-inch wafer production facility (owned), a design and prototyping facility (leased) and other leased office space to perform certain test and design operations. Our IDP headquarters is in Richardson, Texas (leased) and includes office space and design operations. We also have wafer fabrication facilities in Richardson, Texas (owned) and Farmers Branch, Texas (owned). In Hillsboro, Oregon, we have a single facility (owned) that includes office space and a wafer fabrication facility. We also have wafer fabrication facilities in Apopka, Florida (owned) and Bend, Oregon (leased).

We have module assembly and test facilities in Beijing, China (the building is owned and we hold a land-use right for the land) and Dezhou, China (the building is leased and we hold a land-use right for the land). In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018, we signed a definitive lease for an additional manufacturing facility in Beijing, China, where we expect to start production beginning in fiscal 2020. We have a filter assembly and test facility in Heredia, Costa Rica (owned). We also have an assembly and test site in Richardson, Texas (owned) for custom products for our aerospace and defense business and a packaging and test facility in Nuremberg, Germany (leased).

We maintain numerous design centers and sales and customer support centers in leased offices located throughout Asia, Europe and North America.

We believe our properties have been well-maintained, are in sound operating condition and contain all equipment and facilities necessary to operate at present levels. While we believe all our facilities are suitable and adequate for our present purposes, we continually evaluate our business and facilities and may decide to expand, add or dispose of facilities in the future. We do not identify or allocate assets by operating segment. For information on long-lived tangible assets by country, see Note 16 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report.


29


ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.

See the information under the heading "Legal Matters" in Note 10 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report.
 
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.

Not Applicable.

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "QRVO." The table below shows the high and low sales prices of our common stock for each of the quarters in the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018 and April 1, 2017, as reported by The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC. As of May 11, 2018, there were 775 holders of record of our common stock. This number does not include the beneficial owners of unexchanged stock certificates related to the Business Combination or the additional beneficial owners of our common stock who held their shares in street name as of that date.
 
High
 
Low
Fiscal Year Ended March 31, 2018
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
79.34

 
$
63.03

Second Quarter
76.47

 
62.68

Third Quarter
81.20

 
64.53

Fourth Quarter
86.84

 
65.56

 
 
 
 
 
High
 
Low
Fiscal Year Ended April 1, 2017
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
58.30

 
$
43.79

Second Quarter
64.80

 
50.45

Third Quarter
59.12

 
48.28

Fourth Quarter
69.71

 
52.12


We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock.  Although we currently intend to retain our earnings for use in our business and to repurchase our common stock, our future dividend policy with respect to our common stock may change and will depend on our earnings, capital requirements, debt covenants and other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors. 


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PERFORMANCE GRAPH
http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12267909&doc=16
 
January 2,
2015
March 28,
2015
April 2,
2016
April 1,
2017
March 31,
2018
Total Return Index for:
 
 
 
 
 
Qorvo, Inc.
100.00
112.61
72.19
97.39
100.07
Nasdaq Composite
100.00
103.60
104.64
127.64
153.56
S&P 500
100.00
100.95
102.75
120.39
137.24
Nasdaq Electronic Components
100.00
100.94
98.56
140.56
191.99

Notes:
A. The index level for all series assumes that $100.00 was invested in our common stock and each index on January 2, 2015, the registration date of our common stock under Rule 12g-3(c) of the Exchange Act.
B.
The lines represent monthly index levels derived from compounded daily returns, assuming reinvestment of all dividends.
C.
The indexes are reweighted daily using the market capitalization on the previous trading day.
D.
If the month end is not a trading day, the preceding trading day is used.
E.
Qorvo, Inc. was added to the S&P 500 Index on June 12, 2015.


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Purchases of Equity Securities
Period
 
Total number of shares purchased (in thousands)
 
Average price paid per share
 
Total number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programs (in thousands)
 
Approximate dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the plans or programs
December 31, 2017 to January 27, 2018
 

 
$

 

 
$213.1 million
January 28, 2018 to February 24, 2018
 

 
$

 

 
$213.1 million
February 25, 2018 to March 31, 2018
 
615

 
$
82.87

 
615

 
$162.1 million
Total
 
615

 
$
82.87

 
615

 
$162.1 million
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

On November 3, 2016, our Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program to repurchase up to $500.0 million of our outstanding stock. Under this program, share repurchases are made in accordance with applicable securities laws on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. The extent to which we repurchase our shares, the number of shares and the timing of any repurchases will depend on general market conditions, regulatory requirements, alternative investment opportunities and other considerations. The program does not require us to repurchase a minimum number of shares, does not have a fixed term, and may be modified, suspended or terminated at any time without prior notice. See Note 15 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report for a further discussion of our share repurchase program.


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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.

The selected financial data set forth below for the fiscal years indicated were derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. The information should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and with "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" appearing in Item 7 of this report.
 
Fiscal Year
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016

2015
(2) 
2014
 
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
2,973,536

 
$
3,032,574

 
$
2,610,726

 
$
1,710,966

 
$
1,148,231

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of goods sold
1,826,570

 
1,897,062

 
1,561,173

 
1,021,658

 
743,304

 
Research and development
445,103

 
470,836

 
448,763

 
257,494

 
197,269

 
Selling, general and administrative
527,751

 
545,588

 
534,099

 
249,886

 
151,404

 
Other operating expense
103,830

(13) 
31,029

(10) 
54,723

(6) 
59,462

(3) 
28,913

(1) 
Total operating costs and expenses
2,903,254

 
2,944,515

 
2,598,758

 
1,588,500

 
1,120,890

 
Income from operations
70,282

 
88,059

 
11,968

 
122,466

 
27,341

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense
(59,548
)
(14) 
(58,879
)
(11) 
(23,316
)
(7) 
(1,421
)
 
(5,983
)
 
Interest income
7,017

 
1,212

 
2,068

 
450

 
179

 
Other (expense) income
(606
)
 
(3,087
)
 
6,418

 
(254
)
 
2,336

 
Income (loss) before income taxes
17,145

 
27,305

 
(2,862
)
 
121,241

 
23,873

 
Income tax (expense) benefit
(57,433
)
(15) 
(43,863
)
(12) 
(25,983
)
(8) 
75,062

(4) 
(11,231
)
 
Net (loss) income
$
(40,288
)
 
$
(16,558
)
 
$
(28,845
)
 
$
196,303

 
$
12,642

 
Net (loss) income per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
(0.32
)
 
$
(0.13
)
 
$
(0.20
)
 
$
2.17

 
$
0.18

 
Diluted
$
(0.32
)
 
$
(0.13
)
 
$
(0.20
)
 
$
2.11

 
$
0.18

 
Weighted average shares of common stock outstanding
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
126,946

 
127,121

 
141,937

 
90,477

 
70,499

 
Diluted
126,946

 
127,121

 
141,937

 
93,211

 
72,019

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
As of Fiscal Year End
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
(2) 
2014
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
926,037

 
$
545,463

 
$
425,881

 
$
299,814

 
$
171,898

 
Short-term investments

 

 
186,808

 
244,830

 
72,067

 
Working capital
1,402,526

 
1,042,777

 
1,135,409

(9) 
1,174,795

 
317,445

 
Total assets
6,381,519

 
6,522,323

 
6,596,819

 
6,892,379

(5) 
920,312

 
Long-term debt and capital lease obligations, less current portion
983,290

 
989,154

 
988,130

(7) 

 
18

 
Stockholders' equity
4,775,564

 
4,896,722

 
4,999,672

 
6,173,160

 
676,351

 
1 Other operating expense for fiscal 2014 includes the impairment of intangible assets of $11.3 million and restructuring expenses of $11.1 million, as well as acquisition-related expenses of $5.1 million. 
2 As a result of the Business Combination, which was completed on January 1, 2015, fiscal 2015 results include the results of TriQuint as of March 28, 2015 and for the period of January 1, 2015 through March 28, 2015. 
3 Other operating expense for fiscal 2015 includes acquisition and integration-related expenses of $43.5 million and restructuring expenses of $12.4 million. 

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4 Income tax benefit for fiscal 2015 includes the effects of the income tax benefit generated by the reduction in the valuation allowance against domestic deferred tax assets. 
5 Total assets for fiscal 2015 include goodwill and intangible assets totaling approximately $4,430.7 million associated with the Business Combination. 
6 Other operating expense for fiscal 2016 includes integration-related expenses of $26.5 million and restructuring expenses of $10.2 million (see Note 6 and Note 11 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report). 
7 During fiscal 2016, we issued the Notes and recorded $25.8 million of related interest expense, which was offset by $5.2 million of capitalized interest (see Note 8 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report). 
8 Income tax expense for fiscal 2016 includes the effects of the income tax expense generated by the increase in the valuation allowance against domestic state deferred tax assets (see Note 12 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report). 
9 ASU 2015-17 "Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes" was adopted in fiscal 2016, prospectively, which required deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities to be presented as non-current in a classified balance sheet. Prior periods presented were not retrospectively adjusted (see Note 12 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report). 
10 Other operating expense for fiscal 2017 includes integration-related expenses of $16.9 million and restructuring expenses of $2.1 million (see Note 6 and Note 11 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report). 
11 During fiscal 2017, we recorded $69.9 million of interest expense related to the Notes, which was offset by $13.6 million of capitalized interest (see Note 8 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report).  
12 Income tax expense for fiscal 2017 includes the effects of the increase in our unrecognized tax benefits and the unfavorable impact of losses arising in countries with low tax rates (see Note 12 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report). 
13 Other operating expense for fiscal 2018 includes integration-related expenses of $6.2 million and restructuring expenses of $67.7 million (see Note 6 and Note 11 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report). 
14 During fiscal 2018, we recorded $70.5 million of interest expense primarily related to the Notes, which was offset by $13.6 million of capitalized interest (see Note 8 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report).  
15 Income tax expense for fiscal 2018 includes the effects from the enactment of the Tax Act, including the one-time transition tax on certain unrepatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries (the "Transitional Repatriation Tax") expense, which was partially offset by the benefit from remeasuring deferred taxes for the decrease in the U.S. corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% (see Note 12 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report). 



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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.

This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about our plans, objectives, representations and contentions, and are not historical facts and typically are identified by use of terms such as "may," "will," "should," "could," "expect," "plan," "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "predict," "potential," "continue" and similar words, although some forward-looking statements are expressed differently. You should be aware that the forward-looking statements included herein represent management's current judgment and expectations, but our actual results, events and performance could differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements. We do not intend to update any of these forward-looking statements or publicly announce the results of any revisions to these forward-looking statements, other than as is required under U.S. federal securities laws. Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those relating to fluctuations in our operating results, our dependence on a few large customers for a substantial portion of our revenue, a loss of revenue if contracts with the United States government or defense and aerospace contractors are canceled or delayed, our ability to implement innovative technologies, our ability to bring new products to market and achieve design wins, the efficient and successful operation of our wafer fabrication and other facilities, our ability to adjust production capacity in a timely fashion in response to changes in demand for our products, variability in manufacturing yields, industry overcapacity, inaccurate product forecasts and corresponding inventory and manufacturing costs, dependence on third parties, our dependence on international sales and operations, our ability to attract and retain skilled personnel and develop leaders, the possibility that future acquisitions may dilute our stockholders’ ownership and cause us to incur debt and assume contingent liabilities, fluctuations in the price of our common stock, our ability to protect our intellectual property, claims of intellectual property infringement and other lawsuits, security breaches and other similar disruptions compromising our information, and the impact of government and stringent environmental regulations. These and other risks and uncertainties, which are described in more detail under Item 1A, "Risk Factors" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in other reports and statements that we file with the SEC, could cause actual results and developments to be materially different from those expressed or implied by any of these forward-looking statements.

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto.

OVERVIEW

Company

On February 22, 2014, RFMD and TriQuint entered into the Merger Agreement, which provided for the combination of RFMD and TriQuint in a merger of equals and resulted in the Business Combination under a new holding company named Qorvo, Inc. The transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement were consummated on January 1, 2015.

Qorvo® is a product and technology leader at the forefront of the growing global demand for always-on broadband connectivity. We combine a broad portfolio of RF solutions, highly differentiated semiconductor technologies, deep systems-level expertise and scale manufacturing to supply a diverse group of customers in expanding markets, including smartphones and other mobile devices, defense and aerospace, Wi-Fi customer premises equipment, cellular base stations, optical networks, automotive connectivity, and smart home applications. Within these markets, our products enable a broad range of leading-edge applications – from very-high-power wired and wireless infrastructure solutions to ultra-low-power smart home solutions. Our products and technologies help transform how people around the world access their data, transact commerce, and interact with their communities.

Qorvo employs more than 8,300 people. We have world-class manufacturing facilities, and our fabrication facility in Richardson, Texas, is a U.S. DoD-accredited ‘Trusted Source’ (Category 1A) for GaAs, GaN and BAW technologies. Our design and manufacturing expertise covers many semiconductor process technologies, which we source both internally and through external suppliers. Our primary wafer fabrication facilities are in Florida, North Carolina, Oregon and Texas, and our primary assembly and test facilities are in China, Costa Rica, Germany and Texas. We also operate design, sales and manufacturing facilities throughout Asia, Europe and North America.

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Business Segments

We design, develop, manufacture and market our products to leading U.S. and international OEMs and ODMs in the following operating segments:

Mobile Products (MP) - MP is a leading global supplier of cellular RF and Wi-Fi solutions into a variety of mobile devices, including smartphones, notebook computers, wearables, tablets, and cellular-based applications for the IoT. Mobile device manufacturers and mobile network operators are adopting new technologies to address the growing demand for data-intensive, increasingly cloud-based distributed applications and for mobile devices with smaller form factors, improved signal quality, less heat and longer talk and standby times. New wireless communications standards are being deployed to utilize available spectrum more efficiently. Carrier aggregation is being implemented to support wider bandwidths, increase data rates and improve network performance. These trends increase the complexity of smartphones, require more RF content and place a premium on performance, integration, systems-level expertise, and product and technology portfolio breadth, all of which are MP strengths. We offer a comprehensive product portfolio of BAW and SAW filters, PAs, LNAs, switches, multimode multi-band PAs and transmit modules, RF power management ICs, diversity receive modules, antenna switch modules, antenna tuning and control solutions, modules incorporating PADs and modules incorporating S-PADs.

Infrastructure and Defense Products (IDP) - IDP is a leading global supplier of RF solutions with a diverse portfolio of solutions that "connect and protect," spanning communications and defense applications. These applications include high performance defense systems such as radar, electronic warfare and communication systems, Wi-Fi customer premises equipment for home and work, high speed connectivity in LTE and 5G base stations, cloud connectivity via data center communications and telecom transport, automotive connectivity and other IoT, including smart home solutions. Our IDP products include GaAs and GaN PAs, LNAs, switches, CMOS system-on-a-chip solutions, premium BAW and SAW filter solutions and various multi-chip and hybrid assemblies.  

As of March 31, 2018, our reportable segments are MP and IDP. These business segments are based on the organizational structure and information reviewed by our Chief Executive Officer, who is our chief operating decision maker ("CODM"), and are managed separately based on the end markets and applications they support. The CODM allocates resources and evaluates the performance of each operating segment primarily based on operating income and operating income as a percentage of revenue. For financial information about the results of our operating segments for each of the last three fiscal years, see Note 16 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report.

Fiscal 2018 Management Summary

Our revenue decreased 1.9% in fiscal 2018 to $2,973.5 million compared to $3,032.6 million in fiscal 2017, primarily due to lower demand for our cellular RF solutions in support of customers based in China, partially offset by higher demand for our defense and aerospace and Wi-Fi products as well as higher demand for our cellular RF solutions in support of our largest end customer.

Our gross margin for fiscal 2018 was 38.6% compared to 37.4% for fiscal 2017. Gross margin was positively impacted by improved manufacturing and test yields on certain high-volume products, lower depreciation, favorable changes in product mix within our cellular RF solutions and growth in demand for our IDP products. This increase in gross margin was partially offset by lower factory utilization, average selling price erosion and higher intangible amortization.

Our operating income was $70.3 million in fiscal 2018 compared to $88.1 million in fiscal 2017. This decrease was primarily due to one-time restructuring charges, partially offset by lower personnel-related costs as well as cost savings resulting from restructuring initiatives described below and ongoing efforts to optimize our product portfolio.

During fiscal 2018, we initiated restructuring actions to improve operating efficiencies. As a result of these actions, we recorded approximately $18.3 million of employee termination benefits and adjusted the carrying value of certain held for sale assets located in China and the U.S. to fair market value (resulting in impairment charges totaling approximately $46.3 million).

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Our net loss per diluted share was $0.32 for fiscal 2018 as compared to net loss per diluted share of $0.13 for fiscal 2017.

We generated positive cash flow from operations of $852.5 million for fiscal 2018 as compared to $776.8 million for fiscal 2017. This year-over-year increase was primarily due to changes in working capital. The Tax Act did not have an impact on our fiscal 2018 cash flows from operating activities.

Capital expenditures totaled $269.8 million in fiscal 2018, as compared to $552.7 million in fiscal 2017. The comparable prior year period expenditures were related to projects that increased premium filter capacity and manufacturing cost saving initiatives.

The Tax Act, enacted during the third quarter of fiscal 2018, lowers the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% as of January 1, 2018, and implements a territorial tax system that will allow the repatriation of future foreign earnings without incurring additional U.S. federal income tax.  This tax law change resulted in a provisional tax benefit of $39.1 million to reduce the U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities and a provisional tax expense of $116.4 million for a one-time transitional deemed repatriation of our historical unremitted foreign earnings. 

During fiscal 2018, we repurchased approximately 2.9 million shares of our common stock for approximately $219.9 million.


RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Consolidated

The following table presents a summary of our results of operations for fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016:

 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
(In thousands, except percentages)
 
Dollars
 
% of
Revenue
 
Dollars
 
% of
Revenue
 
Dollars
 
% of
Revenue
Revenue
 
$
2,973,536

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,032,574

 
100.0
%
 
$
2,610,726

 
100.0
%
Cost of goods sold
 
1,826,570

 
61.4

 
1,897,062

 
62.6

 
1,561,173

 
59.8

Gross profit
 
1,146,966

 
38.6

 
1,135,512

 
37.4

 
1,049,553

 
40.2

Research and development
 
445,103

 
15.0

 
470,836

 
15.5

 
448,763

 
17.2

Selling, general, and administrative
 
527,751

 
17.7

 
545,588

 
18.0

 
534,099

 
20.4

Other operating expense
 
103,830

 
3.5

 
31,029

 
1.0

 
54,723

 
2.1

Operating income
 
$
70,282

 
2.4
%
 
$
88,059

 
2.9
%
 
11,968

 
0.5
%

Revenue

Our overall revenue decreased $59.0 million, or 1.9%, in fiscal 2018 as compared to fiscal 2017, primarily due to lower demand for our cellular RF solutions in support of customers based in China, partially offset by higher demand for our defense and aerospace and Wi-Fi products as well as higher demand for our cellular RF solutions in support of our largest end customer.

Our overall revenue increased $421.8 million, or 16.2%, in fiscal 2017 as compared to fiscal 2016, primarily due to higher demand for our cellular RF solutions in support of marquee smartphones and customers based in China and higher sales of our wireless infrastructure, defense and aerospace and Wi-Fi products.

We provided our products to our largest end customer, Apple, through sales to multiple contract manufacturers, which in the aggregate accounted for 36%, 34% and 37% of total revenue in fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Huawei accounted for approximately 8%, 11% and 12% of our total revenue in fiscal years 2018, 2017

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and 2016, respectively. These customers primarily purchase cellular RF and Wi-Fi solutions offered by our MP segment for a variety of mobile devices, including smartphones, notebook computers, wearables, tablets and cellular-based applications for the IoT.

International shipments amounted to $2,449.1 million in fiscal 2018 (approximately 82% of revenue) compared to $2,565.5 million in fiscal 2017 (approximately 85% of revenue) and $2,304.4 million in fiscal 2016 (approximately 88% of revenue). Shipments to Asia totaled $2,329.3 million in fiscal 2018 (approximately 78% of revenue) compared to $2,441.1 million in fiscal 2017 (approximately 81% of revenue) and $2,162.1 million in fiscal 2016 (approximately 83% of revenue). We expect our international and Asia shipments will remain relatively stable at these historical levels.

Gross Margin

Our overall gross margin for fiscal 2018 was 38.6% as compared to 37.4% in fiscal 2017. The increase was primarily due to improved manufacturing and test yields on certain high-volume parts, lower depreciation, favorable changes in product mix within our cellular RF solutions and growth in demand for our IDP products. This increase in gross margin was partially offset by lower factory utilization, average selling price erosion and higher intangible amortization.

Our overall gross margin for fiscal 2017 was 37.4% as compared to 40.2% in fiscal 2016. Gross margin was adversely impacted in fiscal 2017 by an unfavorable change in product mix towards lower margin low-band PAD modules, product cost reductions lagging normal average selling price erosion, lower factory utilization and unfavorable inventory adjustments primarily due to lower than expected manufacturing and assembly yields on the low-band PAD modules in the second quarter of fiscal 2017. The lower yield was associated with the device packaging, not device functionality; however, the impact was significant because the issue was identified late in the production process. These adverse factors were partially offset by lower intangible amortization, stock-based compensation and other costs related to the Business Combination in fiscal 2017 as compared to fiscal 2016.
 
Operating Expenses

Research and Development

In fiscal 2018, R&D spending decreased $25.7 million, or 5.5%, as compared to fiscal 2017, primarily due to lower personnel-related costs as well as cost savings resulting from the ongoing efforts to optimize our product portfolio and the restructuring actions initiated in fiscal 2018.

In fiscal 2017, R&D spending increased $22.1 million, or 4.9%, as compared to fiscal 2016, primarily driven by costs associated with the design and development of high-performance filter-based products and GaN-based technologies and products. The increased R&D expense was partially offset by lower stock-based compensation expense.

Selling, General and Administrative

In fiscal 2018, selling, general and administrative expense decreased $17.8 million, or 3.3%, as compared to fiscal 2017, primarily due to lower personnel-related costs as well as cost savings resulting from the restructuring actions initiated in fiscal 2018.

In fiscal 2017, selling, general, and administrative expense increased $11.5 million, or 2.2%, as compared to fiscal 2016, primarily due to higher personnel-related costs, partially offset by lower stock-based compensation expense.

Other Operating Expense

In fiscal 2018, other operating expense was $103.8 million. In fiscal 2018, we initiated restructuring actions to improve operating efficiencies, and, as a result of these actions, we recorded approximately $18.3 million of employee termination benefits and adjusted the carrying value of certain held for sale assets located in China and the U.S. to fair market value (resulting in impairment charges totaling approximately $46.3 million, pursuant to Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 360, "Property, Plant, and Equipment"). In fiscal 2018, we also recorded integration costs and restructuring costs of $6.2 million and $2.6 million, respectively, associated with the

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Business Combination, as well as $24.3 million of start-up costs related to new processes and operations in both existing and new facilities.

In fiscal 2017, other operating expense was $31.0 million, including integration costs of $16.9 million and restructuring costs of $2.0 million associated with the Business Combination, as well as $9.7 million of start-up costs related to new processes and operations in both existing and new facilities.

In fiscal 2016, other operating expense was $54.7 million, including integration costs of $26.5 million and restructuring costs of $10.1 million (including stock-based compensation) associated with the Business Combination, as well as $14.1 million of start-up costs related to new processes and operations in both existing and new facilities.

Operating Income

Our overall operating income was $70.3 million for fiscal 2018 as compared to $88.1 million for fiscal 2017. This decrease was primarily due to one-time restructuring charges, partially offset by lower personnel-related costs as well as cost savings resulting from the restructuring initiative and ongoing efforts to optimize our product portfolio.

Our overall operating income was $88.1 million for fiscal 2017 as compared to $12.0 million for fiscal 2016. This increase was primarily due to higher gross profit from higher revenue and lower intangible amortization, stock-based compensation and other costs related to the Business Combination, partially offset by lower gross margin.

Segment Product Revenue, Operating Income and Operating Income as a Percentage of Revenue

Mobile Products
 
 
Fiscal Year
(In thousands, except percentages)
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Revenue
 
$
2,181,161

 
$
2,384,041

 
$
2,083,334

Operating income
 
$
549,574

 
$
554,001

 
$
591,751

Operating income as a % of revenue
 
25.2
%
 
23.2
%
 
28.4
%

MP revenue decreased $202.9 million, or 8.5%, in fiscal 2018 as compared to fiscal 2017 primarily due to lower demand for our cellular RF solutions in support of customers based in China, partially offset by higher demand for our cellular RF solutions in support of our largest end customer.

The increase in MP operating income as a percentage of revenue in fiscal 2018 as compared to fiscal 2017 was primarily due to higher gross margin and lower operating expense. Gross margin increased primarily due to favorable changes in product mix within our cellular RF solutions, lower depreciation and improved manufacturing and test yields on certain high-volume parts. This increase in gross margin was partially offset by average selling price erosion and lower factory utilization. Operating expense decreased primarily due to lower personnel-related costs as well as cost savings resulting from restructuring actions that were initiated during fiscal 2018 to improve operating efficiencies and ongoing efforts to optimize our product portfolio.

MP revenue increased $300.7 million, or 14.4%, in fiscal 2017 as compared to fiscal 2016, primarily due to higher demand for our cellular RF solutions in support of marquee smartphones and customers based in China.

The decrease in MP operating income as a percentage of revenue in fiscal 2017 as compared to fiscal 2016 was primarily due to lower gross margin. Gross margin was adversely impacted in fiscal 2017 by an unfavorable change in product mix towards lower margin low-band PAD modules, product cost reductions lagging normal average selling price erosion, lower factory utilization, and unfavorable inventory adjustments, primarily due to lower than expected manufacturing assembly yields on the low-band PAD modules in the second quarter of fiscal 2017. The lower yield was associated with the device packaging, not device functionality, however, the impact was significant because the issue was identified late in the production process.


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Infrastructure and Defense Products
 
 
Fiscal Year
(In thousands, except percentages)
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Revenue
 
$
788,495

 
$
644,653

 
$
523,512

Operating income
 
$
235,719

 
$
152,539

 
$
108,370

Operating income as a % of revenue
 
29.9
%
 
23.7
%
 
20.7
%

IDP revenue increased $143.8 million, or 22.3%, in fiscal 2018 as compared to fiscal 2017, primarily due to higher demand for our defense and aerospace and Wi-Fi products.

IDP operating income increased $83.2 million, or 54.5%, in fiscal 2018 as compared to fiscal 2017, primarily due to higher demand for our defense and aerospace and Wi-Fi products.

IDP revenue increased $121.1 million, or 23.1%, in fiscal 2017 as compared to fiscal 2016, primarily due to higher sales of our wireless infrastructure, defense and aerospace and Wi-Fi products.

The increase in IDP operating income as a percentage of revenue in fiscal 2017 as compared to fiscal 2016 was driven by higher gross profit from increased revenue, favorable factory utilization and lower unfavorable inventory adjustments. This increase in gross profit was partially offset by higher personnel-related expenses.

See Note 16 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report for a reconciliation of segment operating income to the consolidated operating income for fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016.

Change in Estimate

During the first quarter of fiscal 2018, we changed our accounting estimate for the expected useful lives of certain machinery and equipment. We evaluated our current asset base and reassessed the estimated useful lives of certain machinery and equipment in connection with the implementation of several capital projects, including the migration of certain SAW processes from 4-inch to 6-inch toolsets and certain BAW processes from 6-inch to 8-inch toolsets. Based on our ability to re-use equipment across generations of process technologies and historical usage trends, we determined that the expected useful lives for certain machinery and equipment should be increased by up to three years to reflect more closely the estimated economic lives of those assets. This change in estimate was applied prospectively effective for the first quarter of fiscal 2018 and resulted in a decrease in depreciation expense of $59.7 million for fiscal 2018. This decrease in depreciation expense for fiscal 2018 resulted in the following: (1) an increase in income from operations of $47.4 million; (2) an increase in net income of $44.1 million; (3) an improvement in earnings per share of $0.34; and (4) a reduction in inventory of $12.3 million.

OTHER (EXPENSE) INCOME AND INCOME TAXES
 
 
Fiscal Year
(In thousands)
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Interest expense
 
$
(59,548
)
 
$
(58,879
)
 
$
(23,316
)
Interest income
 
7,017

 
1,212

 
2,068

Other (expense) income
 
(606
)
 
(3,087
)
 
6,418

Income tax expense
 
(57,433
)
 
(43,863
)
 
(25,983
)

Interest expense

We recognized $70.5 million, $69.9 million and $25.8 million of interest expense in fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, primarily related to the $1.0 billion of senior notes that were issued in the third quarter of fiscal 2016. Interest expense in the preceding table for fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016 is net of capitalized interest of $13.6 million, $13.6 million and $5.2 million, respectively.


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Other (expense) income
                              
Other expense in fiscal 2018 of approximately $0.6 million was related primarily to a net loss from foreign currency offset by a gain on investments. The foreign currency loss was driven primarily by the depreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Euro and Singapore Dollar as well as by the changes in the local currency denominated balance sheet accounts.  Other expense in fiscal 2017 of approximately $3.1 million was related primarily to a net loss from foreign currency. The foreign currency loss was driven primarily by the appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi as well as by the changes in the local currency denominated balance sheet accounts. In fiscal 2016, we recognized other income primarily due to a gain from the sale of equity securities.

Income tax expense

Income tax expense for fiscal 2018 was $57.4 million, which was primarily comprised of tax expense related to the net $77.3 million provisional impact of the Tax Act, international operations generating pre-tax book income and an increase in gross unrecognized tax benefits, offset by tax benefits related to tax credits and domestic and international operations generating pre-tax book losses. For fiscal 2018, this resulted in an annual effective tax rate of 335.0%.
The impact of the Tax Act resulted in a provisional net tax expense of $77.3 million in fiscal 2018. This was comprised of a provisional transitional repatriation tax expense of $116.4 million, offset by a provisional deferred tax benefit of $39.1 million from the remeasurement of U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities. Both the tax charge and the tax benefit represent provisional amounts based on current best estimates.
Income tax expense for fiscal 2017 was $43.9 million, which was primarily comprised of tax expense related to domestic and international operations generating pre-tax book income and an increase in gross unrecognized tax benefits, offset by tax benefits related to tax credits and international operations generating pre-tax book losses. For fiscal 2017, this resulted in an annual effective tax rate of 160.6%.
Income tax expense for fiscal 2016 was $26.0 million, which was primarily comprised of tax expense related to international operations, an increase in gross unrecognized tax benefits and a $25.1 million increase in the valuation allowance against domestic state tax net operating loss and credit deferred tax assets and foreign net operating loss deferred tax assets, offset by tax benefits arising from domestic operations and tax credits. For fiscal 2016, this resulted in an annual effective tax rate of (908.0)%.
A valuation allowance has been established against deferred tax assets in the taxing jurisdictions where, based upon the positive and negative evidence available, it is more likely than not that the related deferred tax assets will not be realized. Realization is dependent upon generating future income in the taxing jurisdictions in which the operating loss carryovers, credit carryovers, depreciable tax basis, and other deferred tax assets exist. Management reevaluates the ability to realize the benefit of these deferred tax assets on a quarterly basis. As of the end of fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016, the valuation allowance against domestic and foreign deferred tax assets was $42.8 million, $33.1 million, and $34.7 million, respectively.
See Note 12 of the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report for additional information regarding income taxes.

STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION

Under Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") ASC 718, “Compensation – Stock Compensation,” stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date, based on the estimated fair value of the award using an option pricing model for stock options (Black-Scholes) and market price for restricted stock units, and is recognized as expense over the employee's requisite service period.

As of March 31, 2018, total remaining unearned compensation cost related to unvested restricted stock units and options was $72.8 million, which will be amortized over the weighted-average remaining service period of approximately 1.2 years.


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LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

Cash generated by operations is our primary source of liquidity. As of March 31, 2018, we had working capital of approximately $1,402.5 million, including $926.0 million in cash and cash equivalents, compared to working capital of $1,042.8 million, including $545.5 million in cash and cash equivalents, as of April 1, 2017.

Our $926.0 million of total cash and cash equivalents as of March 31, 2018, includes approximately $292.9 million held by our foreign subsidiaries, of which $190.8 million is held by Qorvo International Pte. Ltd. in Singapore. If the undistributed earnings of our foreign subsidiaries are needed in the U.S., we may be required to accrue and pay state income and/or foreign local withholding taxes to repatriate these earnings. Our current plans are to permanently reinvest the undistributed earnings of our foreign subsidiaries, except for the earnings of Qorvo International Pte. Ltd.

Credit Agreement

On December 5, 2017, we and certain of our material domestic subsidiaries (the “Guarantors”) entered into a five-year unsecured senior credit facility with Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent, swing line lender, and L/C issuer, and a syndicate of lenders (the “Credit Agreement”). On the same date, in connection with the execution of the Credit Agreement, we terminated our prior credit agreement, dated April 7, 2015.

The Credit Agreement includes a senior delayed draw term loan of up to $400.0 million (the "Term Loan") and a $300.0 million revolving line of credit (the "Revolving Facility", together with the Term Loan, the "Credit Facility"). In December 2017, $100.0 million of the Term Loan was funded and this amount was subsequently repaid in March 2018. The remainder of the Term Loan is available, at our discretion, in up to two draws prior to June 5, 2018. The Revolving Facility includes a $25.0 million sublimit for the issuance of standby letters of credit and a $10.0 million sublimit for swing line loans. We may request at any time that the Credit Facility be increased by an amount not to exceed $300.0 million. The Credit Facility is available to finance working capital, capital expenditures and other corporate purposes. Our obligations under the Credit Agreement are jointly and severally guaranteed by the Guarantors. Outstanding amounts are due in full on the maturity date of December 5, 2022 (with amounts borrowed under the swing line option due in full no later than ten business days after such loan is made). We had no outstanding amounts under the Credit Facility as of March 31, 2018.

See Note 8 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report for further information about the Credit Agreement, including applicable interest rates and financial covenants. As of March 31, 2018, we were in compliance with all the financial covenants under the Credit Agreement.

Stock Repurchases

On November 5, 2015, our Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program to repurchase up to $1.0 billion of our outstanding common stock through November 4, 2016. On February 16, 2016, as part of the $1.0 billion share repurchase program, we entered into variable maturity accelerated share repurchase ("ASR") agreements (a $250.0 million collared agreement and a $250.0 million uncollared agreement) with Bank of America, N.A.  For the upfront payment of $500.0 million, in fiscal 2016, we received an aggregate of 10.0 million shares of our common stock under the ASR agreements. Final settlements of the ASR agreements were completed during the first quarter of fiscal 2017 with 0.4 million shares received resulting in a total of 10.4 million shares of our common stock repurchased under the ASR agreements.

On November 3, 2016, our Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program to repurchase up to $500.0 million of our outstanding stock. Under this program, share repurchases are made in accordance with applicable securities laws on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. The extent to which we repurchase our shares, the number of shares and the timing of any repurchases will depend on general market conditions, regulatory requirements, alternative investment opportunities and other considerations. The program does not require us to repurchase a minimum number of shares, does not have a fixed term, and may be modified, suspended or terminated at any time without prior notice. This program included approximately $150.0 million authorized on the $1.0 billion repurchase program that expired November 4, 2016.

We repurchased 2.9 million shares, 4.1 million shares (inclusive of the 0.4 million shares received in final settlement of the ASR agreement) and 24.3 million shares (inclusive of the 10.0 million shares initially received under the ASR

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agreement) of our common stock during fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, at an aggregate cost of $219.9 million, $209.4 million and $1,300.0 million, respectively, in accordance with the share repurchase programs described above. As of March 31, 2018, $162.1 million remains available for future repurchases under our current share repurchase program.

Cash Flows from Operating Activities

Operating activities in fiscal 2018 provided cash of $852.5 million, compared to $776.8 million in fiscal 2017. This year-over-year increase was primarily due to changes in working capital. The Tax Act did not have an impact on our fiscal 2018 cash flows from operating activities.

Operating activities in fiscal 2017 provided cash of $776.8 million, compared to $687.9 million in fiscal 2016. This year-over-year increase was due primarily to improvement in working capital, partially offset by lower adjustments for non-cash items. The adjustments for non-cash items were lower due primarily to stock-based compensation expense and deferred taxes, partially offset by higher depreciation.

Cash Flows from Investing Activities

Net cash used in investing activities in fiscal 2018 was $277.4 million, compared to $490.3 million in fiscal 2017. This year-over-year decrease in cash used in investing activities was primarily due to capital expenditures incurred in fiscal 2017 that increased premium filter capacity and manufacturing cost saving initiatives.

Net cash used in investing activities in fiscal 2017 was $490.3 million, compared to $278.7 million in fiscal 2016. This increase was primarily due to higher capital expenditures related to projects for increasing premium filter capacity and manufacturing cost savings initiatives and the acquisition of GreenPeak Technologies, B.V. ("GreenPeak"), partially offset by higher net proceeds from available-for-sale securities.
 
Cash Flows from Financing Activities

Net cash used in financing activities in fiscal 2018 was $196.8 million, compared to $165.7 million in fiscal 2017. This year-over-year increase was primarily due to higher share repurchase activity, higher tax withholding paid on behalf of employees for restricted stock units and debt payments.

Net cash used in financing activities in 2017 was $165.7 million, compared to $283.0 million in fiscal 2016. This decrease was primarily due to lower share repurchase activity, partially offset by lower net proceeds from borrowings.

Our future capital requirements may differ materially from those currently anticipated and will depend on many factors, including market acceptance of and demand for our products, acquisition opportunities, technological advances and our relationships with suppliers and customers. Based on current and projected levels of cash flow from operations, coupled with our existing cash and cash equivalents and our Credit Facility, we believe that we have sufficient liquidity to meet both our short-term and long-term cash requirements. However, if there is a significant decrease in demand for our products, or if our revenue grows faster than we anticipate, operating cash flows may be insufficient to meet our needs. If existing resources and cash from operations are not sufficient to meet our future requirements or if we perceive conditions to be favorable, we may seek additional debt or equity financing. Additional equity or debt financing could be dilutive to holders of our common stock. Further, we cannot be sure that additional equity or debt financing, if required, will be available on favorable terms, if at all.

IMPACT OF INFLATION

We do not believe that the effects of inflation had a significant impact on our revenue or operating income during fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016.

OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS

As of March 31, 2018, we had no off-balance sheet arrangements as defined in Item 303(a)(4)(ii) of SEC Regulation S-K.


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CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS

The following table summarizes our significant contractual obligations and commitments (in thousands) as of March 31, 2018, and the effect such obligations are expected to have on our liquidity and cash flows in future periods.

 
Payments Due By Period
 
Total Payments
 
Fiscal 2019
 
Fiscal 2020-2021
 
Fiscal 2022-2023
 
Fiscal 2024 and thereafter
Capital commitments (1)
$
39,793

 
$
39,200

 
$

 
$
593

 
$

Long-term debt obligations (2)
1,480,132

 
68,396

 
136,793

 
136,793

 
1,138,150

Capital lease (3)
52,431

 

 
2,094

 
2,094

 
48,243

Operating leases
68,582

 
12,490

 
21,898

 
15,740

 
18,454

Other purchase obligations and commitments (4)
290,626

 
283,452

 
7,174

 

 

Cross-licensing liability (5)
10,340

 
2,540

 
4,800

 
3,000

 

Deferred compensation (6)
14,284

 
966

 
1,397

 
887

 
11,034

Total
$
1,956,188

 
$
407,044

 
$
174,156

 
$
159,107

 
$
1,215,881

(1) Capital commitments represent obligations for the construction or purchase of property and equipment. They were not recorded as liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheet because we had not received the related goods or services as of March 31, 2018.
(2) Long-term debt obligations represent future cash payments of principal and interest over the life of the Notes, including anticipated interest payments not recorded as liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheet as of March 31, 2018. Debt obligations are classified based on their stated maturity date, and any future redemptions would impact our cash payments. See Note 8 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report for further information.
(3) The capital lease obligation relates to a lease that was signed in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018. This lease will allow us to consolidate several leased facilities as well as provide additional manufacturing space in Beijing, China. The lease is not recorded on our Consolidated Balance Sheet as of March 31, 2018, because the lease term is not expected to commence until fiscal 2020.
(4) Other purchase obligations and commitments include payments due under various contracts as well as agreements to purchase materials and manufacturing services. They are not recorded as liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheet because we had not received the related goods or services as of March 31, 2018.
(5) The cross-licensing liability represents payables under a cross-licensing agreement and are included in "Accrued liabilities" and "Other long-term liabilities" in the Consolidated Balance Sheet as of March 31, 2018.
(6) Commitments for deferred compensation represent the liability under our Non-Qualified Deferred Compensation Plan. See Note 9 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report for further information.

Other Contractual Obligations

As of March 31, 2018, in addition to the amounts shown in the contractual obligations table above, we had $127.4 million of unrecognized income tax benefits and accrued interest, of which $18.3 million had been recorded as a liability.  We are uncertain as to if, or when, such amounts may be settled. 

As discussed in Note 9 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report, we have two pension plans in Germany with a combined benefit obligation of approximately $12.7 million as of March 31, 2018. Pension benefit payments are not included in the schedule above because they are not available for all periods presented. Pension benefit payments were approximately $0.2 million in fiscal 2018 and are expected to be approximately $0.3 million in fiscal 2019.


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CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

The preparation of consolidated financial statements requires management to use judgment and estimates. The level of uncertainty in estimates and assumptions increases with the length of time until the underlying transactions are completed. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The accounting policies that are most critical in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements are those that are both important to the presentation of our financial condition and results of operations and require significant judgment and estimates on the part of management. Our critical accounting policies are reviewed periodically with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors. We also have other policies that we consider key accounting policies, however, these policies typically do not require us to make estimates or judgments that are difficult or subjective (see Note 1 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report).

Inventory Reserves. The valuation of inventory requires us to estimate obsolete or excess inventory. The determination of obsolete or excess inventory requires us to estimate the future demand for our products within specific time horizons, generally 12 to 24 months. The estimates of future demand that we use in the valuation of inventory reserves are the same as those used in our revenue forecasts and are also consistent with the estimates used in our manufacturing plans to enable consistency between inventory valuations and build decisions. Product-specific facts and circumstances reviewed in the inventory valuation process include a review of the customer base, market conditions, and customer acceptance of our products and technologies, as well as an assessment of the selling price in relation to the product cost.

Historically, inventory reserves have fluctuated as new technologies have been introduced and customers’ demand has shifted. Inventory reserves had an impact on margins of less than 2% in fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016.

Property and Equipment. Periodically, we evaluate the period over which we expect to recover the economic value of our property and equipment, considering factors such as changes in machinery and equipment technology, our ability to re-use equipment across generations of process technology and historical usage trends. When we determine that the useful lives of assets are shorter or longer than we had originally estimated, we adjust the rate of depreciation to reflect the revised useful lives of the assets.

We assess property and equipment for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the assets or the asset grouping may not be recoverable. Factors that we consider in deciding when to perform an impairment review include an adverse change in our use of the assets or an expectation that the assets will be sold or otherwise disposed. We assess the recoverability of the assets held for use by comparing the projected undiscounted net cash flows associated with the related asset or group of assets over their remaining estimated useful lives against their respective carrying amounts.  Assets identified as “held for sale” are recorded at the lesser of their carrying value or their fair market value less costs to sell.  Impairment, if any, is based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of those assets.  The process of evaluating property and equipment for impairment is highly subjective and requires significant judgment as we are required to make assumptions about items such as future demand for our products and industry trends.

Goodwill and Intangible Assets. Goodwill is recorded when the purchase price paid for a business exceeds the estimated fair value of the net identified tangible and intangible assets acquired. Intangibles are recorded when such assets are acquired by purchase or license. The value of our intangibles, including goodwill, could be impacted by future adverse changes such as: (i) any future declines in our operating results; (ii) a decline in the value of technology company stocks, including the value of our common stock; (iii) a prolonged or more significant slowdown in the worldwide economy or the semiconductor industry; or (iv) failure to meet the performance projections included in our forecasts of future operating results.

We account for goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets in accordance with the FASB's guidance, which requires annual testing for impairment or whenever events or circumstances make it more likely than not that an impairment may have occurred. We perform our annual impairment tests on the first day of the fourth quarter in each fiscal year. Our indefinite-lived intangible assets consist of in-process research and development ("IPRD").


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We have the option to perform a qualitative assessment (commonly referred to as "step zero") to determine whether further quantitative analysis for impairment of goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets is necessary. In performing step zero for our impairment test, we are required to make assumptions and judgments, including the evaluation of macroeconomic conditions as related to our business, industry and market trends, and the overall future financial performance of our reporting units and future opportunities in the markets in which they operate. We also consider recent fair value calculations of our indefinite-lived intangible assets and reporting units as well as cost factors such as changes in raw materials, labor or other costs. If the step zero analysis indicates that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit or indefinite-lived asset is less than its respective carrying value including goodwill, then we would perform an additional quantitative analysis. For goodwill, this involves a two-step process. The first step compares the fair value of the reporting unit, including its goodwill, to its carrying value. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, then the second step of the process is performed to determine the amount of impairment. The second step compares the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill to the carrying value of the goodwill. An impairment charge is recognized for the amount the carrying value of the reporting unit's goodwill exceeds its implied fair value.

For indefinite-lived intangible assets, the quantitative analysis compares the carrying value of the asset to its fair value and an impairment charge is recognized for the amount its carrying value exceeds its fair value.

Determining the fair value of reporting units, indefinite-lived intangible assets and implied fair value of a reporting unit's goodwill is reliant upon estimated future revenues, profitability and cash flows and consideration of market factors. Assumptions, judgments and estimates are complex, subjective and can be affected by a variety of factors, including external factors such as industry and economic trends, and internal factors such as changes in our business strategy or our internal forecasts. Although we believe the assumptions, judgments and estimates we have made have been reasonable and appropriate, different assumptions, judgments and estimates could materially affect our results of operations.

Goodwill

Goodwill is allocated to our reporting units based on the expected benefit from the synergies of the business combinations generating the underlying goodwill. For fiscal 2018, we performed a qualitative assessment of the fair value of our reporting units and, as a result of our analysis, we determined that there were no indicators of impairment and no further quantitative impairment test was deemed necessary.

For fiscal 2017, we performed a qualitative assessment of the fair value of our reporting units and, as a result of our analysis, we determined that there were no indicators of impairment and no further quantitative impairment test was deemed necessary.

For fiscal 2016, although there were no indicators of impairment, we opted to bypass the qualitative assessment and proceeded to perform fair value assessments of our reporting units (the first step of the quantitative impairment analysis) as the fair value of the reporting units had changed (due to the Business Combination) since the last time we performed a quantitative analysis. The quantitative assessments performed reaffirmed that there were no indicators of impairment for fiscal 2016.

In performing these quantitative assessments, consistent with our historical approach, we used both the income and market approaches to estimate the fair value of our reporting units. The income approach involves discounting future estimated cash flows. The sum of the reporting unit cash flow projections was compared to our market capitalization in a discounted cash flow framework to calculate an overall implied internal rate of return (or discount rate) for the Company. Our market capitalization was adjusted to a control basis assuming a reasonable control premium, which resulted in an implied discount rate. This implied discount rate serves as a baseline for estimating the specific discount rate for each reporting unit.

The discount rate used is the value-weighted average of our estimated cost of equity and debt (“cost of capital”) derived using both known and estimated customary market metrics. Our weighted average cost of capital is adjusted for each reporting unit to reflect a risk factor, if necessary, for each reporting unit. We perform sensitivity tests with respect to growth rates and discount rates used in the income approach. We

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believe the income approach is appropriate because it provides a fair value estimate based upon the respective reporting unit’s expected long-term operations and cash flow performance.

We considered historical rates and current market conditions when determining the discount and growth rates used in our analysis. For fiscal 2016, the material assumptions used for the income approach were eight years of projected net cash flows and a long-term growth rate of 3% for both the MP and IDP reporting units. A discount rate of 15% and 16% was used for the MP and IDP reporting units, respectively.

In applying the market approach, valuation multiples are derived from historical and projected operating data of selected guideline companies, which are evaluated and adjusted, if necessary, based on the strengths and weaknesses of the reporting unit relative to the selected guideline companies. The valuation multiples are then applied to the appropriate historical and/or projected operating data of the reporting unit to arrive at an indication of fair value. We believe the market approach is appropriate because it provides a fair value using multiples from companies with operations and economic characteristics similar to its reporting units. We weighted the results of the income approach and the results of the market approach at 50% each and for the MP and IDP reporting units, concluded that the fair value of the reporting units was determined to be substantially in excess of the carrying value, and as such, no further analysis was warranted.

Under the income approach, the following indicates the sensitivity of key assumptions utilized in the assessment. A one percentage point decrease in the discount rate would have increased the fair value of the MP and IDP reporting units by approximately $660.0 million and $140.0 million, respectively, while a one percentage point increase in the discount rate would have decreased the fair value of the MP and IDP reporting units by approximately $560.0 million and $110.0 million, respectively. A one percentage point decrease in the long-term growth rate would have decreased the fair value of the MP and IDP reporting units by approximately $290.0 million and $50.0 million, respectively, while a one percentage point increase in the long-term growth rate would have increased the fair value of the MP and IDP reporting units by approximately $340.0 million and $70.0 million, respectively.

Intangible Assets with Indefinite Lives

In fiscal 2015, as a result of the Business Combination, we recorded IPRD of $470.0 million. IPRD was recorded at fair value as of the date of acquisition as an indefinite-lived intangible asset until the completion or abandonment of the associated R&D efforts or impairment. The fair value of the acquired IPRD was determined based on an income approach using the "excess earnings method," which estimated the value of the intangible assets by discounting the future projected earnings of the asset to present value as of the valuation date. Upon completion of development, acquired IPRD assets are transferred to finite-lived intangible assets and amortized over their useful lives. During fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016, we completed and transferred into developed technology approximately $37.0 million, $220.0 million and $203.0 million, respectively, of IPRD. We performed a qualitative assessment of the remaining IPRD of $10.0 million during fiscal 2018 and concluded that IPRD was not impaired.

Intangible Assets with Definite Lives

Intangible assets are recorded when such assets are acquired by purchase or license. Finite-lived intangible assets consist primarily of technology licenses, customer relationships, developed technology and trade names resulting from business combinations and are subject to amortization.

Technology licenses are recorded at cost and are amortized on a straight-line basis over the lesser of the estimated useful life of the technology or the term of the license agreement, ranging from approximately five to eight years.

The fair value of customer relationships acquired during fiscal years 2013, 2015 and 2017 was determined based on an income approach using the “with and without method," in which the value of the asset is determined by the difference in discounted cash flows of the profitability of the Company "with" the asset and the profitability of the Company "without" the asset. Customer relationships are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life, ranging from three to ten years.


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The fair value of developed technology acquired during fiscal years 2013, 2015 and 2017 was determined based on an income approach using the "excess earnings method," which estimated the value of the intangible assets by discounting the future projected earnings of the asset to present value as of the valuation date. Developed technology is amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life, ranging from three to six years.

The fair value of trade names acquired in fiscal years 2015 and 2017 was determined based on an income approach using the "relief from royalty method," in which the value of the asset is determined by discounting the future projected cash flows generated from the trade name's estimated royalties. Trade names are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of two to three years.

The fair value of the non-compete agreements acquired in fiscal 2017 was determined based on an income approach using the "incremental income method" over the useful life of two years.

We regularly review identified intangible assets to determine if facts and circumstances indicate that the useful life has changed from the original estimate or that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. If such facts and circumstances exist, we assess the recoverability of identified intangible assets by comparing the projected undiscounted net cash flows associated with the related asset or group of assets over their remaining lives against their respective carrying amounts. Impairments, if any, are based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of those assets and occur in the period in which the impairment determination was made.

Revenue Recognition. Net revenue is generated principally from sales of semiconductor products. We recognize revenue from product sales when the fundamental criteria are met, such as the time at which the title and risk and rewards of product ownership are transferred to the customer, price and terms are fixed or determinable, no significant vendor obligation exists and collection of the resulting receivable is reasonably assured.

Sales of products are generally made through either our sales force, manufacturers' representatives or through a distribution network. Revenue from the majority of our products is recognized upon shipment of the product to the customer from a Company-owned or third-party location. Some revenue is recognized upon receipt of the shipment by the customer. We have limited rebate programs offering price protection to certain distributors. These rebates represented approximately 5% of net revenue in fiscal 2018 and can be reasonably estimated based on specific criteria included in the rebate agreements and other known factors at the time. We reduce revenue and record reserves for product returns and allowances for price protection, stock rotation, and scrap allowance based on historical experience or specific identification depending on the contractual terms of the arrangement.
We also recognize a portion of our net revenue through other agreements such as non-recurring engineering fees, contracts for R&D work, royalty income, intellectual property ("IP") revenue, and service revenue. These agreements are collectively less than 1% of our consolidated annual revenue. Revenue from these agreements is recognized when the service is completed or upon certain milestones, as provided for in the agreements.
Revenue from certain contracts is recognized on the percentage of completion method based on the costs incurred to date and the total contract amount, plus the contractual fee. If these contracts experience cost overruns, the percentage of completion method is used to determine revenue recognition. Revenue from fixed price contracts is recognized when the required deliverable is satisfied.
Royalty income is recognized based on a percentage of sales of the relevant product reported by licensees during the period.
In addition, we license or sell our rights to use portions of our IP portfolio, which includes certain patent rights useful in the manufacture and sales of certain products. IP revenue recognition is dependent on the terms of each agreement. We will recognize IP revenue upon delivery of the IP if we have no substantive future obligation to perform under the arrangement. We will defer recognition of IP revenue where future performance obligations are required to earn the revenue or the revenue is not guaranteed. Revenue from services is recognized during the period that the service is performed.

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Accounts receivable are recorded for all revenue items listed above and do not bear interest. We evaluate the collectability of accounts receivable based on a combination of factors. In cases where we are aware of circumstances that may impair a specific customer’s ability to meet its financial obligations after the original sale, we will record an allowance against amounts due, and thereby reduce the receivable to the amount we reasonably believe will be collected. For all other customers, we recognize allowances for doubtful accounts based on the length of time the receivables are past due, industry and geographic concentrations, the current business environment and our historical experience.
Our terms and conditions do not give our customers a right of return associated with the original sale of our products. However, we will authorize sales returns under certain circumstances, which include perceived quality problems, courtesy returns and like-kind exchanges. We evaluate our estimate of returns by analyzing all types of returns and the timing of such returns in relation to the original sale. Reserves are adjusted to reflect changes in the estimated returns versus the original sale of product.

Income Taxes. In determining income for financial statement purposes, we must make certain estimates and judgments in the calculation of tax expense, the resultant tax liabilities, and in the recoverability of deferred tax assets that arise from temporary differences between the tax and financial statement recognition of revenue and expense.

As part of our financial process, we assess on a tax jurisdictional basis the likelihood that our deferred tax assets can be recovered. If recovery is not more likely than not (a likelihood of less than 50 percent), the provision for taxes must be increased by recording a reserve in the form of a valuation allowance for the deferred tax assets that are estimated not to ultimately be recoverable. In this process, certain relevant criteria are evaluated including: the amount of income or loss in prior years, the existence of deferred tax liabilities that can be used to absorb deferred tax assets, the taxable income in prior carryback years that can be used to absorb net operating losses and credit carrybacks, future expected taxable income, and prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. Changes in taxable income, market conditions, U.S. or international tax laws, and other factors may change our judgment regarding whether we will be able to realize the deferred tax assets. These changes, if any, may require material adjustments to the net deferred tax assets and an accompanying reduction or increase in income tax expense which will result in a corresponding increase or decrease in net income in the period when such determinations are made. See Note 12 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report for additional information regarding changes in the valuation allowance and net deferred tax assets.

As part of our financial process, we also assess the likelihood that our tax reporting positions will ultimately be sustained. To the extent it is determined it is more likely than not (a likelihood of more than 50 percent) that some portion or all of a tax reporting position will ultimately not be recognized and sustained, a provision for unrecognized tax benefit is provided by either reducing the applicable deferred tax asset or accruing an income tax liability. Our judgment regarding the sustainability of our tax reporting positions may change in the future due to changes in U.S. or international tax laws and other factors. These changes, if any, may require material adjustments to the related deferred tax assets or accrued income tax liabilities and an accompanying reduction or increase in income tax expense which will result in a corresponding increase or decrease in net income in the period when such determinations are made. See Note 12 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this report for additional information regarding our uncertain tax positions and the amount of unrecognized tax benefits.

RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS

Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Effective

In January 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2017-04, "Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment." The new guidance simplifies the subsequent measurement of goodwill by eliminating the second step from the quantitative goodwill impairment test. We will continue to have the option to perform a qualitative assessment to determine if a quantitative goodwill impairment test is necessary. The new standard will become effective for us beginning in fiscal 2021 with early adoption permitted. We do not believe it will have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.


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In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, "Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business." The new guidance clarifies the definition of a business and provides further guidance for evaluating whether a transaction will be accounted for as an acquisition of an asset or a business. The new standard will become effective for us beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 with early adoption permitted. The update should be applied prospectively. We do not believe it will have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, "Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (a consensus of the FASB’s Emerging Issues Task Force)." The new guidance addresses eight specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice. The new standard will become effective for us beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2019. We do not believe it will have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, "Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments." The new guidance requires entities to use a current lifetime expected credit loss methodology to measure impairments of certain financial instruments. It also modifies the impairment model for available-for-sale debt securities and provides for a simplified accounting model for purchased financial assets with credit deterioration since their origination. The new standard will become effective for us beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2021 with early adoption permitted. We do not believe it will have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases (Topic 842)." The new guidance requires lessees to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term longer than 12 months, including those previously described as operating leases. Consistent with current U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"), the recognition, measurement, and presentation of expenses and cash flows arising from a lease by a lessee will primarily depend on its classification as a finance or operating lease. The new guidance will become effective for us in the first quarter of fiscal 2020. We expect the valuation of the right-of-use assets and lease liabilities, for leases previously described as operating leases, to be the present value of our forecasted future lease commitments. We are continuing to assess the overall impacts of the new standard, including the discount rate to be applied in these valuations.

In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, "Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities." The new guidance will affect the accounting for equity investments, financial liabilities measured under the fair value option and presentation and disclosure requirements for financial instruments. In addition, the FASB clarified guidance related to the assessment of valuation allowances when recognizing deferred tax assets related to unrealized losses on available-for-sale debt securities. The new standard is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2019. We do not believe it will have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)," with several amendments subsequently issued.  The new guidance provides an updated framework for revenue recognition, resulting in a single revenue model to be applied by reporting companies under U.S. GAAP.  Under the new model, recognition of revenue occurs when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.  Additional disclosures will be required regarding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows.  We will adopt the standard in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 using the modified retrospective approach, under which the cumulative effect of adoption is recognized at the date of initial application. We have evaluated the impact of the standard and do not anticipate that the adoption of this standard will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. We are implementing changes to our accounting policies, internal controls and disclosures to support the new standard, however, we do not expect these changes to be material.

Accounting Pronouncements Recently Adopted

In March 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-05, "Income Taxes (Topic 740): Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118." The amendments incorporate into the ASC the recent SEC guidance related to the income tax accounting implications of the Tax Act. See Note 12 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report for additional information.


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In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, "Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting."  The new guidance clarifies when modification accounting in Topic 718 should be applied to changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. We elected to early-adopt the standard in the first quarter of fiscal 2018 with no impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, "Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force)."  The new guidance requires that restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents be included in cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown in the statement of cash flows. We adopted the provisions of ASU 2016-18 in the second quarter of fiscal 2018 using the retrospective transition method. The adjustment to reclassify restricted cash for each period presented was less than $1.0 million.

In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, "Income Taxes (Topic 740), Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory." The new guidance requires an entity to recognize the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset, other than inventory, when the transfer occurs. We elected to early-adopt the standard in the first quarter of fiscal 2018 using the modified retrospective method (which resulted in a cumulative adjustment to retained earnings of $1.2 million as of the beginning of the period of adoption). During fiscal 2018, we recognized a tax expense of $6.9 million related to transfers of intra-entity assets.

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, "Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting."  The new guidance simplifies certain aspects of accounting for share-based payment transactions, including income tax consequences, forfeitures, classification of awards on the balance sheet and presentation on the statement of cash flows, and became effective for us in the first quarter of fiscal 2018. We recognized a cumulative-effect adjustment to reduce our accumulated deficit by $36.7 million  with a corresponding increase to deferred tax assets for the federal and state net operating losses attributable to excess tax benefits that had not been previously recognized. All excess tax benefits and deficiencies in the current and future periods will be recognized as income tax expense in our Consolidated Statement of Operations in the reporting period in which they occur. This will result in increased volatility in our effective tax rate. During fiscal 2018, we recognized a discrete tax benefit of $12.2 million related to the excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation. We also elected to prospectively adopt the provision that requires excess tax benefits to be presented within operating activities in the statement of cash flows and no prior periods have been restated as a result of the adoption. We continued our existing practice of estimating expected forfeitures in determining compensation cost.

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-07, "Investments-Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323): Simplifying the Transition to the Equity Method of Accounting."  The new guidance eliminates the requirement to retrospectively apply the equity method of accounting when an investment previously accounted for under the cost basis qualifies for the equity method of accounting. We adopted ASU 2016-07 in the first quarter of fiscal 2018 with no impact on our consolidated financial results.

In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11, "Inventory (Topic 330): Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory."  The new guidance changes the measurement principle for inventory from the lower of cost or market to the lower of cost and net realizable value. ASU 2015-11 defines net realizable value as the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less reasonably predictable costs to completion, transportation, or disposal. We adopted ASU 2015-11 in the first quarter of fiscal 2018 with no significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.

Financial Risk Management

We are exposed to financial market risks, including changes in interest rates, currency exchange rates and certain commodity prices. The overall objective of our financial risk management program is to seek a reduction in the potential negative earnings effects from changes in interest rates, foreign exchange rates and commodity prices arising from our business activities. We manage these financial exposures through operational means and by using various financial instruments. These practices may change as economic conditions change.

Interest Rates


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The interest rates under our Credit Agreement are variable, however, since we have no outstanding balances under the Credit Agreement, there is no interest rate risk related to this facility as of March 31, 2018.

Currency Exchange Rates

As a global company, our results are affected by movements in currency exchange rates. Our exposure may increase or decrease over time as our foreign business levels fluctuate in the countries where we have operations, and these changes could have a material impact on our financial results. The functional currency for most of our international operations is the U.S. dollar.  We have foreign operations in Asia, Costa Rica and Europe, and a substantial portion of our revenue is derived from sales to customers outside the U.S. Our international revenue is primarily denominated in U.S. dollars. Operating expenses and certain working capital items related to our foreign-based operations are, in some instances, denominated in the local foreign currencies and therefore are affected by changes in the U.S. dollar exchange rate in relation to foreign currencies, such as the Costa Rican Colon, Euro, Pound Sterling, Renminbi and Singapore Dollar. If the U.S. dollar weakens compared to these and other currencies, our operating expenses for foreign operations will be higher when remeasured back into U.S. dollars. We seek to manage our foreign exchange risk in part through operational means.

For fiscal 2018, we incurred a foreign currency loss of $2.8 million as compared to a loss of $3.2 million in fiscal 2017, which is recorded in “Other (expense) income.” 
 
Our financial instrument holdings, including foreign receivables, cash and payables at March 31, 2018, were analyzed to determine their sensitivity to foreign exchange rate changes. In this sensitivity analysis, we assumed that the change in one currency's rate relative to the U.S. dollar would not have an effect on other currencies' rates relative to the U.S. dollar. All other factors were held constant. If the U.S. dollar declined in value 10% in relation to the re-measured foreign currency instruments, our net income would have decreased by approximately $2.7 million. If the U.S. dollar increased in value 10% in relation to the re-measured foreign currency instruments, our net income would have increased by approximately $2.2 million.

Commodity Prices

We routinely use precious metals in the manufacture of our products. Supplies for such commodities may from time to time become restricted, or general market factors and conditions may affect the pricing of such commodities. We also have an active reclamation process to capture any unused gold. While we continue to attempt to mitigate the risk of similar increases in commodities-related costs, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully safeguard against potential short-term and long-term commodity price fluctuations.


ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.
 
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
 
Page
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity
 
 


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Qorvo, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands)


 
March 31, 2018
 
April 1, 2017
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents (Notes 1 & 3)
$
926,037

 
$
545,463

Accounts receivable, less allowance of $134 and $58 as of March 31, 2018 and April 1, 2017, respectively
345,957

 
357,948

Inventories (Notes 1 & 4)
472,292

 
430,454

Prepaid expenses
23,909

 
36,229

       Other receivables (Note 1)
44,795

 
65,247

Other current assets (Notes 1 & 9)
30,815

 
26,264

Total current assets
1,843,805

 
1,461,605

Property and equipment, net (Notes 1 & 5)
1,374,112

 
1,391,932

Goodwill (Notes 1, 6 & 7)
2,173,889

 
2,173,914

Intangible assets, net (Notes 1, 6 & 7)
860,336

 
1,400,563

Long-term investments (Notes 1 & 3)
63,765

 
35,494

Other non-current assets (Notes 9 & 12)
65,612

 
58,815

Total assets
$
6,381,519

 
$
6,522,323

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
213,193

 
$
216,246

Accrued liabilities (Notes 1, 9, 10, & 11)
167,182

 
170,584

Other current liabilities (Note 12)
60,904

 
31,998

Total current liabilities
441,279

 
418,828

Long-term debt (Note 8)
983,290

 
989,154

Deferred tax liabilities (Note 12)
63,084

 
131,511

Other long-term liabilities (Notes 9, 10, 11 & 12)
118,302

 
86,108

Total liabilities
1,605,955

 
1,625,601

Commitments and contingent liabilities (Note 10)


 


Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $.0001 par value; 5,000 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding

 

Common stock and additional paid-in capital, $.0001 par value; 405,000 shares authorized; 126,322 and 126,464 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2018 and April 1, 2017, respectively
5,237,085

 
5,357,394

Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax
(2,752
)
 
(4,306
)
Accumulated deficit
(458,769
)
 
(456,366
)
Total stockholders’ equity
4,775,564

 
4,896,722

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
6,381,519

 
$
6,522,323

See accompanying notes.

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Qorvo, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Operations
(In thousands, except per share data)


 
Fiscal Year
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
2,973,536

 
$
3,032,574

 
$
2,610,726

Cost of goods sold
1,826,570

 
1,897,062

 
1,561,173

Gross profit
1,146,966

 
1,135,512

 
1,049,553

 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
445,103

 
470,836

 
448,763

Selling, general and administrative 
527,751

 
545,588

 
534,099

Other operating expense (Notes 6 & 11)
103,830

 
31,029

 
54,723

Total operating expenses
1,076,684

 
1,047,453

 
1,037,585

Income from operations
70,282

 
88,059

 
11,968

 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense (Note 8)
(59,548
)
 
(58,879
)
 
(23,316
)
Interest income
7,017

 
1,212

 
2,068

Other (expense) income
(606
)
 
(3,087
)
 
6,418

Income (loss) before income taxes
$
17,145

 
$
27,305

 
$
(2,862
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income tax expense (Note 12)
(57,433
)
 
(43,863
)
 
(25,983
)
Net loss
$
(40,288
)
 
$
(16,558
)
 
$
(28,845
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss per share (Note 13):
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
(0.32
)
 
$
(0.13
)
 
$
(0.20
)
Diluted
$
(0.32
)
 
$
(0.13
)
 
$
(0.20
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average shares of common stock outstanding (Note 13):
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
126,946

 
127,121

 
141,937

Diluted
126,946

 
127,121

 
141,937

 
 
 
 
 
 

See accompanying notes.





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Qorvo, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss
(In thousands)


 
Fiscal Year
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net loss
$
(40,288
)
 
$
(16,558
)
 
$
(28,845
)
Total comprehensive loss:
 
 
 
 
 
Unrealized gain on marketable securities, net of tax
204

 
53

 
742

Change in pension liability, net of tax
476

 
(339
)
 
1,153

Foreign currency translation adjustment, including intra-entity foreign currency transactions that are of a long-term-investment nature
1,276

 
(1,014
)
 
(89
)
Reclassification adjustments, net of tax:
 
 
 
 
 
Recognized gain on marketable securities

 

 
(4,994
)
Foreign currency gain recognized and included in net loss
(581
)
 

 

Amortization of pension actuarial loss
179

 
127

 
179

Other comprehensive income (loss)
1,554

 
(1,173
)
 
(3,009
)
Total comprehensive loss
$
(38,734
)
 
$
(17,731
)
 
$
(31,854
)

See accompanying notes.



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Table of Contents
Qorvo, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
(In thousands)


 
 
 
 
 
Accumulated
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other
 
 
 
 
 
Common Stock
 
Comprehensive
 
Accumulated
 
 
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
Loss
 
Deficit
 
Total
March 28, 2015
149,059

 
$
6,584,247

 
$
(124
)
 
$
(410,963
)
 
$
6,173,160

Net loss

 

 

 
(28,845
)
 
(28,845
)
Other comprehensive loss

 

 
(3,009
)
 

 
(3,009
)
Exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock units, net of shares withheld for employee taxes
2,156

 
4,406

 

 

 
4,406

Issuance of common stock in connection with employee stock purchase plan
429

 
17,967

 

 

 
17,967

Tax benefit from exercised stock options

 
636

 

 

 
636

Repurchase of common stock, including transaction costs
(24,258
)
 
(1,300,009
)
 

 

 
(1,300,009
)
Stock-based compensation expense

 
135,366

 

 

 
135,366

Balance, April 2, 2016
127,386

 
$
5,442,613

 
$
(3,133
)
 
$
(439,808
)
 
$
4,999,672

Net loss

 

 

 
(16,558
)
 
(16,558
)
Other comprehensive loss

 

 
(1,173
)
 

 
(1,173
)
Exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock units, net of shares withheld for employee taxes
2,484

 
16,832

 

 

 
16,832

Issuance of common stock in connection with employee stock purchase plan
678

 
25,640

 

 

 
25,640

Tax deficiency from exercised stock options

 
(56
)
 

 

 
(56
)
Repurchase of common stock, including transaction costs
(4,084
)
 
(209,357
)
 

 

 
(209,357
)
Stock-based compensation expense

 
81,722

 

 

 
81,722

Balance, April 1, 2017
126,464

 
$
5,357,394

 
$
(4,306
)
 
$
(456,366
)
 
$
4,896,722

Net loss

 

 

 
(40,288
)
 
(40,288
)
Other comprehensive income

 

 
1,554

 

 
1,554

Exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock units, net of shares withheld for employee taxes
2,246

 
4,735